8-8. Politicians agree, in principle, so America and the EU have been trying to reach a deal which would eliminate the need to double-test many products.


【讲解】in principle作状语修饰agree。


in principle:原则上;基本上,大体上(if you agree to something in principle, you agree about a general plan or idea but have not yet considered the details),

We agree in principle, but we dislike your methods.


eliminate:排除,消除;根除(to completely get rid of something that is unnecessary),

eliminate poverty 消除贫困

eliminate smudges 去掉污迹

eliminate international terrorism 消除国际恐怖主义

8-9. They hope to finish in time for a trade summit between America and the EU on May 28th.



in time:

1.最终,迟早(after a certain period of time, especially after a gradual process of change and development),

In time you’ll learn everything.

2.及时,不迟(before the time by which it is necessary for something to be done),

Do you think we shall be in time for the train?



8-10. Although negotiators are optimistic, the details are complex enough that they may be hard-pressed to get a deal at all.



optimistic:乐观的;乐观主义的(believing that good things will happen in the future),

an optimistic mood 乐观情绪
He remained optimistic about the meeting. 他对会议依然抱乐观态度。


hard-pressed:处于困境的,面临困难的;处于强大压力下的(having a lot of problems and not enough money or time),

the hard-pressed farmers suffering from drought遭旱灾而处境困难的农民


be hard-pressed to form an effective government难于组成强有力的政府

8-11. Why? One difficulty is to construct the agreements.


8-12. The Americans would happily reach one accord on standards for medical devices and then hammer out different pacts covering, say, electronic goods and drug manufacturing.



say:例如(for example)。

accord:协议,条约(a formal agreement between countries or groups)。

hammer out:(经讨论、争辩、讨价还价等后)得出(to decide on an agreement, contract etc after a lot of discussion and disagreement),

hammer out a new policy 作了大量工作后制订出一项新政策

8-13. The EU—following fine continental traditions—wants agreement on general principles, which could be applied to many types of products and perhaps extended to other countries.


【讲解】following fine continental traditions作插入语,修饰EU。which could…other countries乃非限制性定语从句,修饰agreement。


apply:应用;使用,运用(to use something such as a method, idea, or law in a particular situation, activity, or process)

Scientific discoveries are often applied to industrial production methods.