10-7. Already, orientals and Asian Americans constitute the majority of the engineering staffs at many Valley firms.



constitute:组成,构成,形成(if several people or things constitute something, they are parts that from it),

Twelve months constitute a year. 12个月为1年。

10-8. And Chinese, Korean, Filipino and Indian engineers are graduating in droves from California's colleges.



droves:(走在一起的)人群,(crowds of people),

On a hot, muggy day people head for the beaches in droves.

droves of visitors/voters 一群群参观者/选民

10-9. As the heads of next-generation start-ups, these Asian innovators can draw on customs and languages to forge righter links with crucial Pacific Rim markets.



draw on:(to use information, experience, knowledge etc for a particular purpose)),

The government had to draw on reserves and borrow abroad.

His remarks drew heavily on his experiences in that country.

10-10. For instance, Alex Au, a Stanford Ph. D. from Hong Kong, has set up a Taiwan factory to challenge Japan's near lock on the memory-chip market.

【译文】例如,来自香港的斯坦福大学哲学博士Alex Au已在台湾建厂,对日本在内存条市场上近似垄断的局面构成挑战。

【讲解】a Stanford Ph. D. from Hong Kong作Alex Au的同位语。Ph. D.乃美式拼法,PhD乃英式拼法,二者均为Philosophiae Doctor(Philosopher of Doctor)的缩写形式。有人将Alex Au译为“亚历克斯•奥”,不妥。香港人的英文名字多为英文名+中文姓氏的粤语音译构成,如刘德华的英文名字是Andy Lau,陈慧琳的英文名字是Kelly Chen,容祖儿的英文名字是Joey Yung等等。因此不宜将Alex Au译为“亚历克斯•奥”,在不知此人准确姓名的情况下,宜保持原文。


a lock on something:完全控制(complete control of something)。

10-11. India-born N. Damodar Reddy's tiny California company reopened an AT&T chip plant in Kansas City last spring with financing from the state of Missouri.


【讲解】last spring不可译为“去年春天”。此处的last意为“最近过去的”,因此究竟该译为“去年”还是“今年”需参考文章写作时间,因本文选自1989年10月的US NEWS AND WORLD REPORT,因此应将last spring译为“今年春天”。


plant:工厂,车间(a factory or building where an industrial process happens),

a cement plant 水泥厂

10-12. Before it becomes a retirement village, Silicon Valley may prove a classroom for building a global business.