15-6. Yet a great many processes depending on such research are sought for with complete secrecy until the stage at which patents can be taken out.


【讲解】depending on such research作定语,修饰processes。with complete secrecy作状语,修饰are sought for。at which patents can be taken out系定语从句,修饰stage。


patent: 专利,专利权,专利证书(a special document that gives you the right to make or sell a new invention or product that no one else is allowed to copy),

take out a patent for an invention 取得一项发明的专利
hold a patent on 对……拥有专利权

Patents have been running out on these drugs.

patent亦可作动词(参见下句),意为“得到……的专利权(to obtain a special document giving you the right to make or sell a new invention or product)”,

The company has patented many new inventions.

15-7. Even more processes are never patented at all but kept as secret processes.


【讲解】句中的never…but…,相当于not…but…,只是前者用了never表示强调;never…but…在这里连接两个并列的被动语态的动词are patented和(are)kept,作“从不……而(是)解”。but后省略了are。


15-8. This applies particularly to chemical industries, where chance discoveries play a much larger part than they do in physical and mechanical industries.


【讲解】this指上句内容,可简要译为“保密”。they指chance discoveries。do代替play a part。where chance discoveries…mechanical industries系非限制性定语从句,修饰chemical industries。


chance:偶然的,碰巧的,意想不到的(not planned or expected),

a chance decision 偶然的决定
a chance meeting 邂逅
a chance visitor 不速之客


15-9. Sometimes the secrecy goes to such an extent that the whole nature of the research cannot be mentioned.


【讲解】that the whole nature…mentioned是结果状语从句。

15-10. Many firms, for instance, have great difficulty in obtaining technical or scientific books from libraries because they are unwilling to have their names entered as having taken out such and such a book, for fear the agents of other firms should be able to trace the kind of research they are likely to be undertaking.


【讲解】as having taken out such and such a book是介词短语,作entered的方式状语。as是介词,having taken out是动名词短语taking out的完成时结构。such and such a book,某本书,英语中不指名地提到某个人时这样表示:Mr. so and so,不具体说出某人或某事的名字或特征时,则说:such and such a man(place,date,etc.)


for fear起连词作用,fear后省略了that,引导目的状语从句。这从句中常用虚拟语气。

He handled the instrument with care for fear(that)it should be damaged.


lest与for fear同义,只是较为古雅,多用于正式文体中。