Lesson 16 The modern city

from Man, the Unknown

16-1. In the organization of industrial life the influence of the factory upon the physiological and mental state of the workers has been completely neglected.


16-2. Modern industry is based on the conception of the maximum production at lowest cost, in order that an individual or a group of individuals may earn as much money as possible.


【讲解】at lowest cost作production的定语。in order that作连词用引导目的状语从句。

16-3. It has expanded without any idea of the true nature of the human beings who run the machines, and without giving any consideration to the effects produced on the individuals and on their descendants by the artificial mode of existence imposed by the factory.


【讲解】it指modern industry。produced作effects的定语,on与effect搭配在一起用,意为“对……的影响”。

imposed by the factory作the artificial mode of existence的定语。如果把produced摆在descendants和by之间则被容易误认为修饰descendents。produced摆在effects后面使读者一看即知是修饰effects。


artificial:人工的,人造的,人为的(not real or not made of natural things but made to be like something that is real or natural),

artificial leather 人造革
an artificial leg 假腿

请注意,“假牙”只能用false teeth。

impose:把……强加于(to force someone to have the same ideas, beliefs etc. as you),

He imposed on me his own ideas about the novel.

impose oneself(one’s company)on others

She imposed herself as their leader.


16-4. The great cities have been built with no regard for us.



regard:考虑,注意,关心(attention or consideration that is shown towards someone or something),

The next object of regard is his conduct.

You have (shown) no regard for my feelings.

pay no regard at all for (to) the human dignities of people

Have some regard for cleanliness. 要注意些清洁。

Out of regard for your father, I shall not dismiss you this time.

16-5. The shape and dimensions of the skyscrapers depend entirely on the necessity of obtaining the maximum income per square foot of ground, and of offering to the tenants offices and apartments that please them.


【讲解】of obtaining the maximum…ground和of offering to… them是两个并列的介词短语,作necessity的定语。offices and apartments that please them作offering的宾语,that please them作offices和apartments的定语从句。them指tenants。