爱思英语编者按:近日,"窃听门"惊动英国政坛乃至全世界,高级官员引咎辞职,检举人意外身亡。逐步升温的风暴背后,既是对当今传媒大亨( media tycoon)们统治地位的挑战,更是对媒体人士良心的拷问。 

A true history of scandal
英国小报风云史:谁窃听了我的电话?

The scandal over alleged phone hacking by journalists at The News of the World (NOTW), has grown legs. 
《世界新闻报》被指控指使记者进行电话窃听的丑闻不胫而走。

British Prime Minister David Cameron has called for an emergency session of parliament. 
英国首相戴维•卡梅伦紧急召开英国议会会议。http://www.24en.com 爱思英语网

Two top police officers have quit their jobs and Sean Hoare, a former staff member who exposed phone hacking, has been found dead.
两名警方高级官员已引咎辞职。揭发该电话窃听事件的前雇员肖恩•霍尔被发现意外死亡。

Cameron said that a "firestorm" has hit the media and police. The growing scandal threatens media boss Rupert Murdoch's empire and even the British government.
卡梅伦称,媒体与警界都陷入一场危机。丑闻事态的扩大,俨然已撼动了老板鲁伯特•默多克所掌控的传媒帝国,甚至还危及到了英国政府。



It would seem that journalistic standards have slipped and tabloids will go to any lengths to get an exclusive story.
看来新闻业的道德标准已出现下滑,为了获取独家新闻,各小型报的出版者可谓极尽所能。

Newspapers such as the NOTW once prided themselves on exposing corruption and hypocrisy and shaming wrongdoers.
包括《世界新闻报》在内的诸多报纸曾以揭发贪污、伪善行为并对违法者大加嘲讽而自以为傲。

But somewhere along the line, the NOTW became more interested in "kiss-and-tell" stories about stars, sportsmen and politicians.
但一路走来,不知不觉中,《世界新闻报》开始愈发地对揭露明星、运动员和政客们隐私的报道产生兴趣。

Each week the NOTW, Britain's biggest-selling Sunday newspaper, featured paid-for stories from young women about their affairs with famous soccer players who were caught "playing away from home". The newspaper thrived on scandal, the juicier the better.
每周,作为英国最畅销的周日报刊,《世界新闻报》都会花钱从一些年轻女性那买来她们与著名足球运动员在外挥霍享乐的事件并作为卖点。对于一份依赖于各类丑闻的报纸来说,自然内容越刺激越好。http://www.24en.com 爱思英语网

However, there's nothing new about the popular press employing questionable means to get exclusive stories. 
然而,畅销报刊利用不正当手段来获取独家新闻的这种做法历来就有。

Muckraking, or yellow journalism, has a long tradition which goes back 250 years in Britain. 
专攻丑闻或八卦新闻,在英国这一传统可追溯至250年前。

The Digger is a weekly newspaper based in Glasgow. It is devoted to reporting and investigating crime. The editor's philosophy is simple: "I want you to upset and annoy people in authority and to expose drug dealers".
来自格拉斯哥市的《Digger》周报,致力报道和调查犯罪行为。该周刊编辑奉行的哲学很简单:"我想让你去惹恼和激怒掌权人士,去揭发毒品走私犯。"

The Digger reminded one experienced journalist of 18th century news sheets.
《Digger》让人们回想起了18世纪那些经验丰富的小报记者。

These forerunners of tabloid newspapers carried colorful reports of bloody crimes, robbery and public executions. They were extremely popular.
作为通俗小报的先驱者,他们报道血腥犯罪、暴力抢劫和公共处决等各色新闻,极其受欢迎。

In the 19th century reporters covering cases at the Old Bailey, the central criminal court in London, provided a diet of murder and mayhem for the press. 
在19世纪,那些负责报导伦敦老贝利中央刑事法院所审理的案件的记者们,为新闻界提供了许多与谋杀案和重伤罪有关的新闻大餐。

Meanwhile respectable newspapers carried shipping news, reports of royal visits and summaries of Parliamentary business.
同时,体面的主流报刊则会报导航运快讯、皇室访问以及议会工作总结。

As more British people learned to read, newspaper sales rocketed. 
随着越来越多的英国人养成了读报的习惯,报纸销量迅猛增加。

In the US in the 19th century many newspapers carried sensational stories meant to anger or excite readers. 
19世纪的美国,许多报刊通过报导轰动事件来激起民愤或煽动读者。

The Daily Mail was launched in 1896 in the UK. Lord Salisbury, then British prime minister, described it as a "newspaper written by office boys for office boys". 
1896年英国《每日邮报》成立。后来的英国首相索尔兹伯里勋爵描述其为"由勤杂工执笔的一份面向勤杂工群体的报刊"。

In the 20th century press giants Lords Beaverbrook and Rothermere enjoyed power and influence. Today, Rupert Murdoch's media empire looks increasingly vulnerable.
20世纪,传媒大亨弗布鲁克勋爵和罗瑟米尔勋爵享有着权力与影响力。而今天,鲁伯特•默多克的传媒帝国却显得越来越不堪一击。