爱思英语编者按:TEPCO是在福岛拥有核电厂的日本电力公司。自从三月份地震导致的危机以来,TEPCO就面临着接踵而来的赔偿损失的要求。它的股份跌了将近90%(见表)。在6月28日的会议上一位男子提议董事会通过切腹自杀换句话说就是仪式自杀来承担责任。

东京电力公司的烦恼

Power in Japan
日本电力

The troubles of TEPCO
东京电力公司的烦恼

The fallout from the Fukushima nuclear disaster is spreading throughout Japan's energy industry 
福岛核泄漏风波正在席卷整个日本能源产业

"THROW yourself into a nuclear reactor and die!" one investor shouted. Japanese shareholders are usually more polite, but this was the annual meeting of TEPCO, the Japanese power company that owns the Fukushima nuclear plant. Since an earthquake in March caused a meltdown, TEPCO faces unlimited demands for compensation. Its shares have fallen by nearly 90% (see chart). A man at the meeting on June 28th suggested that the board take responsibility by committing seppuku, or ritual suicide.http://www.24en.com 爱思英语网
一位投资人喊道:"让自己置身于核反应堆,然后死去"。日本投资者很少这么没有礼貌,但这是东京电力公司一次不同寻常的会议,TEPCO是在福岛拥有核电厂的日本电力公司。自从三月份地震导致的危机以来,TEPCO就面临着接踵而来的赔偿损失的要求。它的股份跌了将近90%(见表)。在6月28日的会议上一位男子提议董事会通过切腹自杀换句话说就是仪式自杀来承担责任。http://www.24en.com 爱思英语网


有史以来最糟糕的污染公司——绿色和平组织

Not everything went wrong for TEPCO. A shareholder motion to close all its nuclear plants was defeated. But apart from that, things look grim. TEPCO faces claims for compensation that, in a worst-case scenario, could exceed its assets of ¥15 trillion ($186 billion). No one knows how much it will have to pay. (Oddly, it is the education ministry's job to issue guidelines for nuclear compensation.) Estimates of TEPCO's liabilities range between ¥4 trillion and ¥25 trillion. The firm also owes ¥7.8 trillion to bondholders and bank creditors. If TEPCO goes bust, these people take precedence over those affected by the disaster, a fact that is politically radioactive.http://www.24en.com 爱思英语网
对TEPCO来说,并不是什么事都那么糟糕。一位股东意图关闭所有的核电厂的想法被击败了。但是除此之外,事情看起来是严峻的。在最坏的情况下,TEPCO所面临的索赔金额可能会超过它本身的资产15万亿美元(1860亿美元)。没有人确切的知道它必须支付多少。(奇怪的是,是教育部颁布核赔偿的的指导方针)初步估计,TEPCO的负债额在4万亿美元到25万亿美元之间。该公司同时欠债券持有人和银行债权人7.8万亿美元。如果TEPCO破产,这些人将优先于那些由于危机受到影响的人首先得到赔偿,事实也就是在政治上是放射性的。



Four months ago, TEPCO was the cornerstone of corporate Japan. Some 750,000 people, many of them elderly, still own its shares. The company, which accounts for a hefty 8% of Japan's total domestic debt market, had its bond rating cut to junk by Moody's on June 20th, following a similar downgrade by Standard & Poor's in May. http://www.24en.com 爱思英语网
四个月前,TEPCO是日本公司的石柱。75万人,很多是老年人,仍然拥有其股份。该公司在日本整个国内债券市场占有绝对支配性的8%,紧接着5月Standard & Poor相同的降级,在6月20日,穆迪将其债券评级将为垃圾等级。http://www.24en.com 爱思英语网

Only the government can save TEPCO from bankruptcy. A bill submitted on June 14th to the Diet, Japan's parliament, aims to enable the firm to pay compensation without going under. It would establish a mechanism for the government to channel truckloads of money to TEPCO, which the firm would then pass on to the victims. This would be repaid from TEPCO's earnings, with help from other nuclear operators. The new entity could purchase TEPCO assets. One insider thinks this will lead to partial nationalisation. Another reckons that the new entity might buy fresh bonds that TEPCO could issue to meet its obligations.
只有政府可以让TEPCO起死回生。在6月14日向Diet提交的一项议案中,日本国会旨在使公司不破产的情况下偿还赔偿金。它将为政府建立一种机制,政府源源不断将钱输送给TEPCO,然后公司再将钱传给受害者。在其他核厂运营商的帮助下,TEPCO将在后续的盈利中偿还政府。这个新实体将购买TEPCO的资产。一位内幕人说这将导致部分国有化。另一个人则认为这个新实体可能会买TEPCO新发行的债券以此来履行其职责。

The bill has not been seriously debated in the Diet, in part because of political paralysis. But officials believe it will be ratified before the end of the summer because the consequences of shelving it are unthinkable. Compensation must be paid, the recovery work at Fukushima must go on and the lights in Tokyo must stay on. http://www.24en.com 爱思英语网
新议案还没有在the Diet引起轩然大波,部分原因是政治僵局。但是官员认为在夏末之前这项议案就将被批准,因为搁置它的后果不可想象。赔偿金必须付,在福岛的修复工作也必须进行,东京的供电也不能出现问题吧。http://www.24en.com 爱思英语网

However, the bill is only a stop-gap. It may soothe TEPCO's creditors. It may even reassure the public that payouts won't lead to higher electricity bills. But critics grumble that the plan protects shareholders at the expense of taxpayers. 
然而,议案仅仅是缓兵之计。它可能会抚慰TEPCO的债权人。它甚至会取消公众的疑虑,支付并不会带来更高的电费。但是危机带来的抱怨是,这项计划是以牺牲纳税人来保护股东的。

The long-term solutions being considered include bankruptcy, temporary nationalisation for the purpose of selling off assets, or capping TEPCO's liability and making it, in addition to an energy provider, a vehicle for compensation payments. TEPCO favours a liability cap. Only this, the thinking goes, will lure back investors and let TEPCO become a normal company again. But this may scupper any chance of energy-sector liberalisation, since the company would need fistfuls of profits in order to make its payouts. "When I meet with TEPCO officials, I don't see any change in mindset; it's as if nothing has changed," sighs a nuclear-energy official. http://www.24en.com 爱思英语网
在考虑之内的长期解决方案包括破产,为了出售资产的临时国有化,或者限制TEPCO的责任,使东京电力公司除了充当能源供应商角色之外,还能够称为赔偿机制的媒介。TEPCO渴望一种责任的封顶。基于这样的考虑,只有这样才能把投资者吸引回来,使TEPCO重新成为一个正常的公司。但是,由于公司需要大量的利润来偿还债款,这将攫取能源部门自由化的任何机会。一位核能源官员叹息道,"当我遇见TEPCO的行政人员时,我没有看见任何心态上的改变,就好像什么都没变一样"。

Bankruptcy or temporary nationalisation would be bolder. Either could herald energy deregulation, since a regional monopoly would be broken up and sold. The government could then separate energy generation and transmission, which the prime minister, Naoto Kan, supports but few other politicians do. Outsiders, such as Softbank, a mobile-phone operator, are keen to enter the energy business. But big business, which ought to favour competition to lower energy prices, is against deregulation. This may be because so many big firms act as suppliers to the utilities, which pay high prices to reward loyalty. 
破产或者暂时国有化更加的大胆。由于区域垄断将支离破碎并且被出售,任何一种都将驱动能源自由化。政府可能会将能源产生和运输分离开来,这是总理Naoto Kan支持但却很少有其他政客会支持的理念。像软银这样的局外人,一位手机运营商,热衷于加入能源行业。但是,这些应该渴望竞争以此来降低能源价格的大企业,却反对自由化。这可能是因为如此多的大企业作为公用事业的供应商,付高价来奖励诚信。

Across Japan, regional power companies are caught in Fukushima's fallout. Most prefectural governors are refusing to restart nuclear plants that shut for regular maintenance. Power shortages loom. Other shareholder meetings have been almost as stormy as TEPCO's. The biggest shareholder of KEPCO, the utility in the Kansai region, is the city of Osaka, which has a 9% stake. Its mayor turned up at the annual general meeting and urged the firm to diversify away from nuclear energy. Such demands are popular. Three-quarters of Japanese want to reduce or eliminate the country's reliance on nuclear power—many more than before the accident. 
纵观日本,区域电力公司都在这次福岛辐射危机中受到影响。大多数的地区总监拒绝重启这些目前关闭并进行正常维护的核能发电厂。电力短缺隐约可见。另一次股东大会几乎同TEPCO的那次一样猛烈。韩国电力公司(KEPCO)最大的股东,关西地区的效用,是在大阪市内,拥有9%的股份。市长在周年会员大会上出席并敦促公司摆脱核能。这样的要求是很受欢迎的。3/4的日本人想要减少或者消除国家对核能的依赖—比事故发生前多许多。

The utilities now face more scrutiny and tighter energy supplies. They are also unlikely to win permission to raise rates. (As regional monopolies, their prices are set and their profit margins are guaranteed by regulators.) Their solid credit ratings could liquefy. KEPCO and another utility recently cancelled new corporate-bond offerings because yields soared. 
公用事业现在面临更加严峻审查和紧缩的能源供给。他们同样不可能赢得加息的允许。(作为区域垄断,他们的价格被设定,边际效益由监管者保证)他们坚实牢固的信用评级可能被溶解。KEPCO和其他公用组织由于受益飙升最近取消了新债券的发行。

Firms that had cross-shareholdings in the utilities have also taken a hit. Even banks are affected: cabinet members have suggested they share the pain by forgiving a portion of TEPCO's pre-quake loans. Naturally, this whacked their share prices.
在公共事业中有交叉持股的公司也受到了打击。即使银行也受到影响:内阁成员暗示到,通过免除一部分TEPCO的震前贷款,他们也分担了痛苦。自然而然地,这削减了他们的股票价格。http://www.24en.com 爱思英语网

The Fukushima disaster presents an opportunity for radical reform. But in a crisis people often grow conservative. Since the government holds the purse-strings, it can more or less dictate terms to TEPCO. The fear is that it will bankroll a return to business as usual.
福岛辐射危机为彻底的改革提供了机会。但是处于危机中的人们通常变得比较保守。由于政府掌控着金钱的收缩,它或多或少能向TEPCO口授条款。唯一的担忧就是它会像以往一样将资金回扣转回到业务中。http://www.24en.com 爱思英语网