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A Rose for Emily

William Faulkner

【原文解读】

过去几年一直在讲《英美短篇小说解读与译赏》(自编讲义),每讲一次,对福克纳的这篇小说都有一种新的认识,都有一种翻译的冲动,一旦动笔翻译,便在标题上卡壳了。但正式决定要试着翻译这篇小说而收集相关评论时,才发现此篇小说早已有人译为献给爱米丽的玫瑰》。许多评论家都对此篇小说的主题给出了不同的看法,并找出了各种理由一定要“献给”爱米丽玫瑰。其最终原因,他们的解读因为根据汉语译文标题《献给爱米丽的玫瑰》。为什么一定要“献给”爱米丽的玫瑰”呢?爱米丽因为什么而值得“献给”玫瑰呢?这是专家们喜闻乐道、争论不断的话题。

尽管如此,仍然禁不住原文小说的诱惑,也禁不住想亲自动手翻译的冲动。专家们对小说内容的分析给自己的翻译提供不少的理解上的帮助;他们的论争也同时加深了自己对原文的理解。此篇小说翻译理解时,参阅过肖明翰博士对此篇小说的研究论文(肖明翰,再谈《献给爱米丽的玫瑰》———答刘新民先生,四川师范大学学报社会科学版 2000年1月)。他认为,此篇小说试图说明杰弗逊镇上的人及其以清教思想为核心的旧传统是造成爱米丽的悲剧的真正原因。

【翻译津要】

尽管原文标题有寓意,但寓意如何,因人而已。不同的人往往会有不同的理解。这就是为什么不同的学者对这篇小说有不同的解读。毕竟理解是一种阐释过程,但凡阐释必有主观性,翻译也是一种阐释,也必有译者的主观性。

从翻译的角度和读者的角度,个人感觉标题译为“悲情玫瑰”更好,因为全文中唯一出现rose(玫瑰)的地方是小说的第五部分中(171)A thin, acrid pall as of the tomb seemed to lie everywhere upon this room decked and furnished as for a bridal: upon the valance curtains of faded rose color, upon the rose-shaded lights, upon the dressing table, upon the delicate array of crystal and the man’s toilet things backed with tarnished silver, silver so tarnished that the monogram was obscured.其中rose一共出现过两次:rose color和rose-shaded lights。此处描写的是新房,可见标题中rose应该是象征的是爱情;但此处的新房如坟墓一般。那就意味着小说中的爱情结果并不能令人向往,而是一种悲剧。

【汉语译文】

 

悲 情 玫 瑰

 

威廉·福克纳

颜林海译

I

(1)WHEN Miss Emily Grierson died, our whole town went to her funeral:(2)the men through a sort of respectful affection for a fallen monument, the women mostly out of curiosity to see the inside of her house, which no one save an old man-servant--a combined gardener and cook--had seen in at least ten years.

【原文解读】从写作上看,作者采用了一个圆周句+名词复合结构,这种句式在文学作品中司空见惯,并且语气或氛围颇显凝重。本句的圆周句(1)奠定了整篇小说的悲情氛围,同时设置了一个悬念:为什么全镇的人都去参加葬礼呢?作者通过冒号(:),并用名词复合结构交代的原因,而这个原因中又设置了悬念:先说男人们,他们怀着敬慕之情参加葬礼,因为爱米丽的死意味着一座丰碑倒塌了,为什么呢?后说女人们,他们为什么要好奇呢?倒底想进屋子里看看什么呢?先男后女并非重男轻女,而是为了过渡到下一段的对爱米丽的房子的细节描写。

【汉语译文】

爱米丽·格利尔逊小姐走了,全镇的人都去送葬:男人们是出于敬慕之情,因为一座丰碑倒塌了;女人们大多出于好奇之心,都想到爱米丽屋里看个究竟。除了一个园丁兼厨师的上了年纪的男仆外,至少已经十年都没有人进去看过了。

【翻译津要】此段中的when属于英语形合手段,翻译时,可以用汉语意合化,所以遗而不译。代词翻译一般应该遵循汉语代词使用的原则“若要明白,不如名词复说;若要简洁,不如索性不用(王力)。”如Our whole town,her funeral 和her house中的代词,如果遗弃又不生歧义,可以遗而不译。当然如果原文强调代词时,代词是必须翻译出来的。

(3)It was a big, squarish frame house that had once been white, decorated with cupolas and spires and scrolled balconies in the heavily lightsome style of the seventies, set on what had once been our most select street. (4)But garages and cotton gins had encroached and obliterated even the august names of that neighborhood; only Miss Emily's house was left, lifting its stubborn and coquettish decay above the cotton wagons and the gasoline pumps-an eyesore among eyesores. (5)And now Miss Emily had gone to join the representatives of those august names where they lay in the cedar-bemused cemetery among the ranked and anonymous graves of Union and Confederate soldiers who fell at the battle of Jefferson.

【原文解读】此段时承接上一段末尾提及的house加以细节描写。文学写作都有描写,但凡描写必有意图,绝对没有无意图的描写,这段描写极具象征性。(3)描写房屋的结构及其建筑风格:十九世纪七十年代的风格。建筑风格具有时代性,同时影射了小说人物的性格。然而(4)时过境迁,曾经的繁华已成沧桑之地,曾经的名流已经为人淡忘。唯独不变的是那栋房子,爱米丽家的那栋房子。虽有破败,却依然那么傲然,残破之中风韵犹存;貌似环境描写却是对人物思想的象征。时过境迁本是自然规律,但如果物非人是则必成保守之心态。作者用“an eyesore among eyesores”一语充分表明了作者或者镇上人们对时过境迁的厌恶。(5)时过境迁是自然规律,生老病死也是自然规律。谁也不可逆转。南北战争死去的军人,无论有名无名,无论职位高低,是如此,曾经家道辉煌一时的格利尔逊家族也难逃此运。

【汉语译文】

那是一幢曾经漆成白色的方形大木屋,圆圆的顶阁,尖尖的塔顶,涡形花纹的阳台,尽显出浓浓的七十年代轻松愉快的风格。房屋所在的街道曾经是全镇最为繁华之地。但这里早已被附近的汽修厂和扎棉机侵占了,就连那些庄严的名字也被吞噬得一干二净;岿然不动的,只有爱米丽小姐的房子,虽有破败之势,却依然显得执拗不训,风韵犹存,与周围的四轮棉花车和汽油泵一样,太过碍眼了。如今爱米丽小姐也进入了那些具有代表性的庄严的名字行列之中,他们长眠在雪松环拥的墓地里,那是南北战争时期杰斐逊战役中阵亡的军人之墓,有的是南方军人,有的是北方士兵;有的是高职位,有的是无名氏。

【翻译津要】

(3)此句是一个描写句。it指前一段中爱米丽的house,此词前后都有形容词修饰,切不可将定语全部前置,否则汉语句子极为累赘,难以卒读。汉语描写句的句式较多,其中一种就是“名词1, +形容词+名词2”,本句译文中 “……方形大木屋, 圆圆的顶阁,尖尖的塔顶,涡形花纹的阳台”就是采用这种句式。分词短语“set on…street”独立译成一句。(4)原文but,“时过境迁”之意尽显;原文以“garages and cotton gins”做主语,译文改为“这里”做主语以求承上启下,并用被动语态来表示“时过境迁”的残酷。Only…一句翻译时采用倒装句式“岿然不动的,只有……”原文中的coquettish由 coquet 派生而来,根据《韦氏大学词典》“a woman who endeavors without sincere affection to gain the attention and admiration of men”可见,作者此处用coquettish来描写房子,实际上是描写爱米丽本人。此处房屋的意象与下面爱米丽舌战群议员的形象一脉相承。因此,翻译为“风韵犹存”。an eyesore among eyesores,表明作者或叙述者的矛盾心情:一切“时过境迁”的东西都让人看不惯,无论是新的东西还是旧的东西。此处译为:“……一样,太过碍眼。”(5)中ranked不应理解为“一排排”而是指军人的级阶。

 (6)Alive, Miss Emily had been a tradition, a duty, and a care; a sort of hereditary obligation upon the town, dating from that day in 1894 when Colonel Sartoris, the mayor----he who fathered the edict that no Negro woman should appear on the streets without an apron----remitted her taxes, the dispensation dating from the death of her father on into perpetuity. (7)Not that Miss Emily would have accepted charity. (8)Colonel Sartoris invented an involved tale to the effect that Miss Emily's father had loaned money to the town, which the town, as a matter of business, preferred this way of repaying. (9)Only a man of Colonel Sartoris’ generation and thought could have invented it, and only a woman could have believed it.

【原文解读】

此段是承接小说开头第一段中的a monument做出交代,说明爱米丽倒底是怎样建立或是怎样的一座丰碑。这座丰碑(6)代表了a tradition, a duty, and a care; a sort of hereditary obligation,(7)对爱米丽加以评述。其实这座丰碑不过是(8)Colonel Sartoris等人的虚构。(9)作者或叙述人的质疑和评价。

【汉语译文】

生前,米丽小姐代表着一个传统、一种职责;她既是人们关注的目标,也是全镇传承下来对她应尽的义务,这种义务是从一八九四年开始的,当时的镇长萨特里斯上校——还颁布了一道命令:严禁黑人妇女不系围裙上街——豁免了她各种税款;这种特惠政策从她父亲去世之日开始,一直到她不在人世之时为止。这并不是说爱米丽爱占人们的便宜,而是萨特里斯上校编造了一套不清不楚的瞎话,说什么爱米丽的父亲曾贷款给镇政府,而镇政府,作为交易,以这种方式偿还。这种瞎话,只有萨特里斯上校那一代人以及像他那样的脑袋的人才瞎编的出来,也只有女人们才会相信这种瞎话。

【翻译津要】

(6)是一种隐喻,翻译时,把四个喻词分成两组:a tradition, a duty一组;a care和 a sort of hereditary obligation一组。前一组中把be动词译为“代表”,使其隐喻明晰化;后一组保留be,用连接词“既是……也是……”将a care 和a sort of hereditary obligation连接起来。句中两个dating的逻辑主语不同,翻译时补充逻辑主语。其中perpetuity指“终身”即爱米丽“不在人世之日为止”。(7)中的Charity指前一句中提及的“remitted her taxes”和“dispensation”,此句客观评述像爱米丽这样的家族并不需要人们对她的charity。故译为:“这并不是说爱米丽爱占人们的便宜,而……”(8)(9)两句翻译并不难。

(10)When the next generation, with its more modern ideas, became mayors and aldermen, this arrangement created some little dissatisfaction. (11)On the first of the year they mailed her a tax notice. (12)February came, and there was no reply. (13)They wrote her a formal letter, asking her to call at the sheriff's office at her convenience. (14)A week later the mayor wrote her himself, offering to call or to send his car for her, and received in reply a note on paper of an archaic shape, in a thin, flowing calligraphy in faded ink, to the effect that she no longer went out at all. (15)The tax notice was also enclosed, without comment.

【原文解读】

此段描写的是新旧思想的第一回合冲突。(10)描写时过境迁,物非人非必然激进,物非人是必然保守。二者相遇必有不满、矛盾和冲突。(11)新思想发起挑战;(12)旧思想的反击;(13)新思想继续挑战;(14)(15)旧思想回击。

【汉语译文】

到了第二代人,他们当上了镇长和议员,思想更加前卫,便对这种免税约定产生了一丝不满。那年元旦,他们寄给她一张纳税通知单,可是到了二月,依然没有回信。他们给她发了一封公函,要她方便时到镇治安办公室去一趟。一周后,镇长亲自书函一封给她,表示愿意登门拜访,或派车接她;镇长得到的回信却是一张便条,字是写在一张古香古色的信笺上,书法流利,字迹纤细,墨迹已干,大意是说,她根本不再外出。随信附还的还有纳税通知单,但不见任何评述。

【翻译津要】

(10) with its more modern ideas介词短语作定语修饰generation,但在逻辑上是后面“created some little dissatisfaction”的原因,因此,翻译时,“with…”译成独立小句;modern 根据上下文是指“前卫”、“激进”;this arrangement指上文提到的给爱米丽的免税照顾,此处译为:“这种免税约定”。(11) On the first of the year指那年元旦,they指mayors和aldermen,代词翻译只要不产生歧义,可以直译。(12)中and具有转折含义。翻译时与(11)句合并在一起。(13)a formal letter是指official letter,所以译为“公函”;sheriff是指 (美)郡保安官(由郡民选出的郡中最高官吏; 通常掌有司法权与警察权),此处指镇级sheriff,所以把sheriff’s office译为:“镇治安办公室”。(14) a note on paper of an archaic shape, in a thin, flowing calligraphy in faded ink是局部细节描写。语言中“adj+noun”与“noun+(be)+adj”的认知意义是相同的,因此,英语中“adj+noun”短语结构,可以翻译成汉语的“名词+形容词”描写句句式。所以,译为“……一张便条,字是写在一张古香古色的信笺上,书法流利,字迹纤细,墨迹已干”。to the effect意为“with the meaning”,译为“大意是说”。(15)中的also表明tax notice和note一并回复,所以译为“纳税通知单也随同附还”。

 (16)They called a special meeting of the Board of Aldermen. (17)A deputation waited upon her, knocked at the door through which no visitor had passed since she ceased giving china-painting lessons eight or ten years earlier. (18)They were admitted by the old Negro into a dim hall from which a stairway mounted into still more shadow. (19)It smelled of dust and disuse--a close, dank smell. (20)The Negro led them into the parlor. (21)It was furnished in heavy, leather-covered furniture. (22)When the Negro opened the blinds of one window, they could see that the leather was cracked; and when they sat down, a faint dust rose sluggishly about their thighs, spinning with slow motes in the single sun-ray. (23)On a tarnished gilt easel before the fireplace stood a crayon portrait of Miss Emily's father.

【原文解读】

在第一回合的第一次冲突中,代表新思想的新一代镇政府官员吃了一会闭门羹;这一段是新旧思想的第二次冲突,一场面对面的冲突。(16)镇政府官员为了挽回第一次冲突,决定召开一次特别会议,商议怎样对付代表旧思想的爱米丽。最后(17)决定派出代表团登门交涉,但是这门已经有八年或十年为开过了,充分说明房屋主人面对时过境迁,采取躲避的态度。开门接待新思想的是(18)黑人奴仆,而不是房屋主人,进屋才发现,屋子里很阴暗,进屋越深越阴暗,明是写景实为写意,房屋越阴暗,旧思想越顽固。表现在(19)屋里发出一股难闻的尘封已久阴冷潮湿的味道,表明此处长期无人居住,同时作者又给读者设置了一个悬念,为什么会长期无人居住呢?这个悬念一直要到小说结尾才能解开悬念。(20)奴仆领着他们进入客厅, (21)客厅家具装饰气派,但(21)当奴仆打开窗户,不看不知道,一看才发现家具早已破败,一旦坐下才发现尘土满地,稍有人动,尘土便四处飞扬。这里对房屋内部丑陋的描写与第二段对房屋的外观丑陋的描写,形成一外一内的照应。(23)在客厅壁炉处摆设着一个早已失去光泽的镀金画架,虽然金色已退,但画架上屹立着一副爱米丽父亲的炭笔画像。爱米丽父亲虽然早已去世,但作者使用动词stood充分表明了房屋主人对父亲,准确地说,是对父亲代表的旧思想的怀念。因此,此处stood是一个寓意极深的字眼。前文第二段(3)--(5)句描写房屋屹立不倒,以景喻义;此处爱米丽父亲画像,更是加深了寓意,以父亲为代表的旧思想屹立不倒。

【汉语译文】

镇政府官员们召开了一个由全镇参议员参加的特别会议,派了一个代表团拜访爱米丽。他们敲了敲门。这扇门自从八年或十年前爱米丽停授瓷器彩绘课以来,谁都没有从这里进出过。接待他们的是那个黑人男仆,他们来到阴暗的门厅,再沿楼梯而上,光线变得更加阴暗了。屋子里发出一股尘封的气味,阴冷潮湿,密不透气,这里长久没有人住了。黑人领着他们来到客厅,客厅里陈设着笨重、包着皮套的家具。黑人打开一扇百叶窗,只见皮套子已经开裂了;他们坐了下来,大腿两边,顿时尘粒飞扬,在百叶窗射进的一缕阳光中,缓缓旋转着。壁炉前是一张早已失去了昔日的光泽的画架;画架上屹立着爱米丽父亲的炭笔画像。

【翻译津要】

(16)中They指上文提及的“mayors and aldermen”此处译文“镇政府官员”;the Board of Aldermen指“全镇参议员”。(17)是上一句特别会议的结果,翻译增加一个起过渡作用的动词,“派”。“through which…. ten years earlier”为定语从句,其补充交代作用,翻译时处理成独立句子来交代补充信息。(16)(17)(18)三句都是以“镇政府官员”作为主位,因此,(18)使用被动句的目的仍然是使此句的主位与前两句的主位保持一致,同时用by照应前文第一段中提及的“黑人男仆”。因此,采用句式“动+宾+是+施事名词”,所以译为:“接待他们的是……”,定语从句“hall from which…”是作者随着视角转换而进行的描写。其中Still more 意为:another even more,具有强调比较级的作用,意为“还要”“更加”“益发”,其他例词有still more bad news,still better,still more difficult,still later等。(19)是静态描写。文学作品中,但凡描写都与主题,或刻画的人物有关。It smelled of dust and disuse--a close, dank smell其中it是承接上一句中的a dim hall。从逻辑上看,屋子能闻到尘埃,但屋子使用没有使用是不可能闻到的而只能看到,因此,作者巧妙地用一个同位语a close, dank smell加以补充说明,从而形成一种嗅觉视觉的通感修辞格。但这种通感修辞格很难完整地直译,翻译时把disuse扩展为一个独立的句子。(20)又回到事情发展的叙述上,此句翻译没有什么难度。(21)随视觉转移而进行的静态描写,这种描写在古今中外的文学作品中是时空见惯的。翻译时,与(20)句合并在一起。(22) 再次回到事情发展的叙述上,并对所见事物加以描写。整个句子是由两个when引导主从句构成并列句;when叙述事情的发展,主句进行描写静动结合the leather was cracked静态描写;“a faint dust rose…spinning…”动态描写。翻译时, when略而不译,时间关系融入句中。(23) 其中短语a tarnished gilt easel与句子a gilt easel had been tarnished意义等同,因此,译为小句:“壁炉前是一张早已失去了昔日的光泽的画架”。 “the single sun-ray”中的the是表明百叶窗打开后才有的sun-ray,所以翻译时为了不至于唐突的感觉,增加了“从百叶窗射进的”。此句是英语存在句的变体,PP+(there)+不及物动词(stand,appear,disappear,come等)+NP,具有很强的描写性。此句中的stand具有象征意义,表示,表明代表清教徒思想屹立不倒。此处译为“屹立”。汉语存现句有三种类型:1)处所名词+有+名词:2)处所名词+是+名词;3)处所名词+动作动词+施事名词。其中类型2),3)具有很强的描写性。此句翻译时拆分为两个存现句,并采用类型2),3)的句式,即“壁炉前是..…;画架上屹立着……”。

 (24)They rose when she entered--a small, fat woman in black, with a thin gold chain descending to her waist and vanishing into her belt, leaning on an ebony cane with a tarnished gold head. (25)Her skeleton was small and spare; perhaps that was why what would have been merely plumpness in another was obesity in her. (26)She looked bloated, like a body long submerged in motionless water, and of that pallid hue. (27)Her eyes, lost in the fatty ridges of her face, looked like two small pieces of coal pressed into a lump of dough as they moved from one face to another while the visitors stated their errand.

【原文解读】

前文对房屋外部内部的丑陋进行了描写,但凡景物描写必有意图,即以景衬人。以景衬人,具有“锦上添花”的作用。“锦上添花”既可以是美中增艳,也可以是丑中添陋。此段作者通过随着事态发展的叙述对人物的丑陋加以描写。(24)代表团成员都站了起来,原来是爱米丽进来了。他们站起来,既可以说是对爱米丽家族及其代表的旧思想的尊重,也可以说是因为对爱米丽的形象感到惊讶所致。惊讶的是不仅爱米丽打扮“身着黑衫,细长的金链直垂腰部,最后插入腰带里;她撑在乌木拐杖上,杖头镶金早已失去了昔日的光泽”,还有她的长相,难道他们既尊敬又想改变的传统旧思想的代表人物的形象就如此这般:“(24)身材矮小,但腰圆体胖”,(25) “臃肿”,(26)“肿胀发白”,“像长期浸泡在死水中的死尸一般”,(27)“眼睛啊,就像揉在生面团中的两个小煤球”。此句中再次使用“tarnished”(锈迹斑斑,失去光泽),寓意着旧思想的衰落。但守旧的人却还存在。

【汉语译文】

代表团成员站了起来,原来进来一个人——一个身材矮小,但腰圆体胖的女人,她身着黑衫,细长的金链直垂腰部,最后插入腰带里;她撑在乌木拐杖上,杖头镶金早已失去了昔日的光泽。她骨架又矮又小,也许正因如此,要是落在别的女人身上,那种胖就是丰满,而落在她身上,就显得臃肿。她看上去肿胀发白,就好像长期浸泡在死水中的死尸一般。当客人说明来意时,她的那两只眼睛不停地转悠着,一会儿瞧瞧这张面孔,一会儿看看那张脸蛋,那眼睛啊,都深陷在满脸隆起的赘肉里了,就像在生面团中的两个小煤球。

【翻译津要】

(24)原文when表示时间,放在主句后面,从上下文看,兼有阐释原因的作用,所以译为“原来”,原文用she entered--- a small, fat woman,表明镇政府官员对she是否是爱米丽小姐不敢肯定,毕竟爱米丽至少已经有8或10年没出过门了,或者说对出现的人形象感到惊讶。因此,翻译时省略了she,采用倒装句形式,译为“原来进来一个人——一个身材矮小,但腰圆体胖的女人。”其中的tarnished第二次使用,具有寓意:旧思想“早已失去了昔日的光泽”。翻译时前后要保持一致。(25)作者故意用不雅之词skeleton来描写爱米丽的身材,而且small and spare(同义重复起强调),故译为“又矮又小” 其中plumpness意为:“having a full rounded usually pleasing form <a plump woman>” 《韦氏大学词典》,既然是a full rounded usually pleasing form ,故译为“丰满”。Obesity意为:“having a condition characterized by the excessive accumulation and storage of fat in the body”,故译为“臃肿”。 (26)bloated意为make sth swell, especially in an unpleasant way。既然是in an unpleasant way,故译为“肿胀”。(27) the fatty ridges of her face实际上就是指脸上的obesity,即脸上的赘肉。

 (28)She did not ask them to sit. (29)She just stood in the door and listened quietly until the spokesman came to a stumbling halt.(30) Then they could hear the invisible watch ticking at the end of the gold chain.

【原文解读】

此段用简笔勾画出了爱米丽的盛气凌人、对新思想不屑一顾的态度。(28) 傲慢神色尽显;(29)just一词尽显“不屑一顾”的神色,让新思想代表张口结舌,不敢多加言语;(30),最后导致尴尬的交际冷场:冷清之中,只有怀表声响,真是此时无声胜有声;同时又意味着,一场激烈的口战即将开始。

【汉语译文】

她并没有叫他们坐下,而径直站在门口,一声不吭地听着,直到发言代表结结巴巴地说完。这时,只听见有滴答滴答的声音,那是金链另一端隐没在裤袋里的怀表发出来的声音。

【翻译津要】

(28) 中的ask,不要译为“请”,因为爱米丽对这些代表新思想的人根本瞧不上眼,谈不上礼貌的“请”,故译为“叫”。(29)正因为爱米丽一声不吭地听着,所以发言代表说话结结巴巴(stumbling),(30)中的could表示前面quietly的程度,但此句翻译时,可以省略they could,而采用无主句“只听见……的声音”,ticking既有前置定语,又有介词短语作后置定语,故采用刈分法,刈分而二来翻译。

 (31)Her voice was dry and cold. “(32)I have no taxes in Jefferson. Colonel Sartoris explained it to me. Perhaps one of you can gain access to the city records and satisfy yourselves.”

 “But we have. We are the city authorities, Miss Emily. Didn't you get a notice from the sheriff, signed by him? ”

(33) “I received a paper, yes,” Miss Emily said. (34)“Perhaps he considers himself the sheriff . . . I have no taxes in Jefferson. ”

 “But there is nothing on the books to show that, you see We must go by the--”

(35) “See Colonel Sartoris. I have no taxes in Jefferson. ”

“But, Miss Emily--”

(36) “See Colonel Sartoris. ” (Colonel Sartoris had been dead almost ten years.) (37)“I have no taxes in Jefferson. Tobe! ” (38)The Negro appeared. (39)“Show these gentlemen out. ”

【原文解读】

(31)-(39)描写的是爱米丽与新镇政府官员的一场舌战,爱米丽性格倔强,语气冷酷无情。性格倔强表明对传统的旧思想维护,冷酷无情表明对新思想的蔑视。前者体现在反复重复“I have no taxes in Jefferson”,后者表现在“I received a paper, yes,”“Perhaps he considers himself the sheriff. ”和对镇政府官员使用祈使句,如“See Colonel Sartoris” “Show these gentlemen out. ”

【汉语译文】

她说起话来,声音冷酷无情。“杰斐逊时,我无须纳税。萨特里斯上校早已给我交待过了。兴许你们可以派个人去查一查镇政府档案,事情就清楚了。”

“可我们查过了。爱米丽小姐,我们就是镇政府当局的。难道你没有收到司法长官亲手签署的通知吗?”

“不错,我是收到过一张纸,”爱米丽小姐说道,“司法长官,也许他真把自己当回事……杰斐逊时,我无须纳税。”

“可是,纳税册上并没有无须纳税的说明,要知道,我们必须依……”

“找萨特里斯上校要去。杰斐逊时,我无须纳税。”

“可是,爱米丽小姐……”

“找萨特里斯上校要去,(萨特里斯上校已经死了将近十年了)杰斐逊时,我无须纳税。托布!”黑奴应声而来。“把这些绅士们给我带出去。”

【翻译津要】

(31)her voice预设了she spoke,因此,增加了预设命题的翻译“她说起话来”,这样不至于太唐突。(32)I have no taxes in Jefferson一句在下面的对话中,反复出现,表现出爱米丽的倔强而顽固,翻译时,前后保持一致即可。(33)其中paper就是指前一句中的notice。但在爱米丽看来,司法长官亲手签署的通知,不过就是一张纸而已,因此,此处直译为“纸”。(34) Perhaps he considers himself the sheriff语气讽刺无情,翻译时,语序稍作变动,故译为“司法长官,也许他真把自己当回事。”(35) See Colonel Sartoris是祈使句,既然(31)“她说起话来,声音冷酷无情”,那么用带有命令的祈使句翻译即可,故译为“找萨特里斯上校要去。”(36)原文重复(35),仍然强调(31)所说的“她说起话来,声音冷酷无情”。翻译时保持重复即可,(37)倔强地重复“杰斐逊时,我无须纳税”;(38)增加了对预设的翻译,故译为“应声而来”;(39)增加两个字“给我”以加强冷酷无情的语气,故译为“把这些绅士们给我带出去。”


II

(40)So SHE vanquished them, horse and foot, just as she had vanquished their fathers thirty years before about the smell.

(41)That was two years after her father's death and a short time after her sweetheart--the one we believed would marry her --had deserted her. (42) After her father's death she went out very little; after her sweetheart went away, people hardly saw her at all. (43)A few of the ladies had the temerity to call, but were not received, and the only sign of life about the place was the Negro man--a young man then--going in and out with a market basket.

【原文解读】

从写作角度看,(40)是过渡句,既对第一次冲突进行收尾,同时又自然过渡到第二次冲突。SHE vanquished them, horse and foot 表明了爱米丽临危不惧的个性。(41)-(43)是作者或叙述者概括式地交代第二次冲突的背景。(41)会引起读者的思索,她的心上人为什么会抛弃她?抛弃她会有什么样的后果呢?这一句,作者使用deserted一词,给读者留下心上人是薄情男,玩玩女性而已的坏印象。(42)简要概述了爱米丽经历的两次打击:父亲的死亡和爱情的失败。这两次打击最终导致了爱米丽的行为异常。从写作角度看,此处既然提及的父亲的死亡,后文应当有所交代。此句中,作者巧妙地使用了went away这个双关语,从而让读者真的以为心上人是一个玩弄女性之徒。(43)是通过对局外人的描写来补充说明这两次打击对爱米丽的影响。

【汉语译文】

就这样,爱米丽把他们一个一个地收拾了,这种场面在三十年前也发生过,他们的父辈因熏天臭气而闹事,她照样把他们的父辈给收拾了。那事发生在她父亲死后两年,也就是她的心上人——我们一直以为一定会与结婚的那个人——抛弃她后不久才发生的事。父亲死后,她很少出门;但心上人走了后,人们几乎再也没有看到她的身影了。有几个冒失的女人曾去过她的家,但却吃了闭门羹。房屋四周唯一的生命迹象就是那个黑人——当时他很年青——拎着菜篮子进进出出。

【翻译津要】

(40)中horse and foot意为“全力以赴”,表现出爱米丽临危不惧的个性,此处译为“一个一个地”。(42)中的“went away”是一个字眼,双关语(离开、死去),具有设置悬念的作用,因此,翻译时注意用词,要保留这种双关作用,故译为“走了”。

 (44)“Just as if a man--any man--could keep a kitchen properly,” the ladies said; so they were not surprised when the smell developed. (45)It was another link between the gross, teeming world and the high and mighty Griersons.

(46)A neighbor, a woman, complained to the mayor, Judge Stevens, eighty years old.

(47) “But what will you have me do about it, madam?”  he said.

(48) “Why, send her word to stop it,” the woman said. “Isn’t there a law? ”

(49) “I’m sure that won’t be necessary,” Judge Stevens said. (50) “It’s probably just a snake or a rat that nigger of hers killed in the yard. I’ll speak to him about it.”

【原文解读】

(44)—(49)是从侧面描写气味事件导致镇上妇女向镇长提出抗议。(44)是妇道人家东家长西家短,表达的意思是男人都能收拾好厨房?难怪会发出难闻的气味来。(45)作者或叙事者对这种气味的解释,认为格利尔逊家族再怎么高贵,也要食人间烟火。从写作角度看,是一种悬念设置手段,是作者的故意让读者误以为真的是黑人男仆做不好家务导致的。(46)是妇道人家向镇长告状,作者尤其交代了镇长是一个高达80岁的老人,和爱米丽家的房子一样,古老。古老意味着守旧,守旧的人说话守旧也就不足为奇了。(47)镇长反问妇女,我能怎么办?(48)妇女建议,先礼后兵,依法办事。(49)“I’m sure”表明了镇长的态度:肯定地表示依法办事没有必要,并(50)安慰说,气味可能是耗子或蛇一类的尸臭味,并把责任归为黑奴;最后答应去跟黑奴说说注意把厨房打扫干净。

【汉语译文】

“好像,要是男人——不管什么样的男人——都可以把厨房收拾得井井有条的话,”女人们说道;那种气味越来越来浓时,她们也并不感到吃惊。这种气味毕竟是芸芸众生的平凡世界与大官贵族的格利尔逊家族之间的另外一种联系方式。

邻家一妇人向年已八十的镇长史蒂文斯法官投诉。

“可是,太太,这件事,你叫我怎么办呢?”他说道。

“嗯,那,通知她把气味去掉呗,”女人说,“不是有法律吗?”

“绝对没有必要,”史蒂文斯法官说,“也许是她家那个黑鬼在院子里打死了一条蛇或一只老鼠什么似的。我去跟他说说这事儿。”

【翻译津要】

(44)是一个虚拟语气,翻译时要把虚拟语气翻译出来。(48)要把普通妇道人家的味道翻译出来,增加一些语气词。(49)注意把“I’m sure”的语气和内涵翻译出来。

 (51) The next day he received two more complaints, one from a man who came in diffident deprecation. (52) “We really must do something about it, Judge. (53) I'd be the last one in the world to bother Miss Emily, but we've got to do something.”(54) That night the Board of Aldermen met--three graybeards and one younger man, a member of the rising generation.

(55) “It's simple enough,” he said. “Send her word to have her place cleaned up. Give her a certain time to do it in, and if she don't. ..”

(56) “Dammit, sir,” Judge Stevens said, “will you accuse a lady to her face of smelling bad?”

【原文解读】

镇上的人再次对爱米丽家的臭气熏天提出了两次抗议(51):先是口头抗议,后是行动抗议,此处描写口头抗议。(52)镇上男人向法官提出了抗议,但对法官有所畏惧,所以抗议有点犹豫(53)。在人们的抗议下,镇长只好召开会议(54)。(55)新生代成员提出强制执行的,语气强硬。新生代的建议引起了旧传统的代表(56) 史蒂文斯法官的反感(Dammit, sir)。

【汉语译文】

第二天,镇长又接到两起投诉,一起是来自一个男的,语气温和。“法官,对这气味,我们真的该采取措施了。可我又最不想打扰爱米丽小姐,但我们总得想想办法呀。”那天晚上,全体参议员召开了一个会,参加会议的人有三位老人和一位较年轻的新兴代成员。

“这事再简单不过了,”年轻人说,“通知她叫人把屋子打扫干净,限期搞好,否则……”

“滚蛋吧,你。先生……” 萨特里斯法官说,“当着一个贵妇的面,你怎么能说她家里有难闻的气味呢?”

【翻译津要】

(51)deprecation: “to belittle or mildly disparage,” 或“to speak slightingly about ”(美国传统词典第四版) “one from a man who came in diffident deprecation”译为“一起是来自一个男的,语气温和。”(53) the last one in the world意为:most unlikely,译为:“可我又最不想打扰爱米丽小姐。”

 (57)So the next night, after midnight, four men crossed Miss Emily’s lawn and slunk about the house like burglars, sniffing along the base of the brickwork and at the cellar openings while one of them performed a regular sowing motion with his hand out of a sack slung from his shoulder. (58)They broke open the cellar door and sprinkled lime there, and in all theoutbuildings. (59) As they recrossed the lawn, a window that had been dark was lighted and Miss Emily sat in it, the light behind her, and her upright torso motionless as that of an idol.(60)They crept quietly across the lawn and into the shadow of the locusts that lined the street. (61)After a week or two the smell went away.

【原文解读】

本段是承接上文,由于投诉得不到支持,(57)四个居民开始采取了偷偷的自救行动:越过草坪、东闻闻西闻闻,开地窖等,所有举动如盗贼一般鬼鬼祟祟,毕竟未经允许私自闯入别人的院子是违法的。此句采用远镜头描写,所以one of them performed a regular sowing motion让读者疑惑这四个家伙在干吗呢?(58)突然作者采用近镜头描写:原来他们在嗅味撒石灰。(59) 对黑暗中的爱米丽的形象进行了细节描写,这个的形象是一种象征。(60)自救行动结束。(61)是作者故意对上文设置的冲突进行了让读者感到合理的解决。其实这是一种写作技巧,以便已达到最后的出其不意的效果。

【汉语译文】

接着,第二天子夜过后,有四个男人越过爱米丽小姐家的草坪,像盗贼一般在屋子周围潜行,沿着墙角和在地窖通风处吸气闻嗅,其中一人还从肩上的麻袋中掏出东西,做着播种的样子。他们打开地窖门,在地窖里和所有的裙楼外都撒上了石灰。当他们再回头穿过草坪时,原本黑暗的窗户亮起了一扇灯光。灯光中爱米丽坐在那儿,灯在她的身后,挺立的身躯一动不动,活像一座雕像。他们鬼鬼祟祟地弓着腰,越过草地,进入街道两旁的洋槐树影中。一两周后,气味消失了。

【翻译津要】

 此段翻译不难。(60)中的动词crept(creep),意为:“To move with the body close to the ground, as on hands and knees”故译为:“他们鬼鬼祟祟地弓着腰”。

(62)That was when people had begun to feel really sorry for her. (63)People in our town, remembering how old lady Wyatt, her great-aunt, had gone completely crazy at last, believed that the Griersons held themselves a little too high for what they really were. (64)None of the young men were quite good enough for Miss Emily and such. (65)We had long thought of them as a tableau, Miss Emily a slender figure in white in the background, her father a spraddled silhouette in the foreground, his back to her and clutching a horsewhip, the two of them framed by the back-flung front door. (66)So when she got to be thirty and was still single, we were not pleased exactly, but vindicated; (67)even with insanity in the family she wouldn't have turned down all of her chances if they had really materialized.

【原文解读】

(62)是事态发展过渡句。(63)开始回顾往事,作者通过对爱米丽的疯癫姑奶奶的描述,影射爱米丽的行为不正常,而这种不正常的原因,或许是家族的遗传,也可能是对物非人非的人世变化的不适应。但人们或作者宁可认为是后者: 格利尔逊一家人都太过自命清高了。这一点从(64)和(65)中可以看出来:(64)爱米丽一类女人什么男人都看不上眼;(65)作者通过静态的细节勾画出了爱米丽(和父亲)一家人的自命清高的活人画像。但这种画像是人们对爱米丽和其父亲形成的印象,象征着自命清高,与世格格不入。(66)是爱米丽自命清高的结果,年届三十,仍然孑然一身。对这种孑然一身,镇上年轻男子本应感到高兴:至少还有成为爱米丽夫婿的机会。但是“我们”并不高兴,反而印证了人们的看法,即太过自命清高。 (67)是评述,评述中透露出惋惜。

【汉语译文】

而这时,人们才开始真正为她感到难过。我们镇上的人想起了爱米丽小姐的姑奶奶怀亚特,这老太太后来完全变成了一个疯子;我们都相信格利尔逊一家人都太过自命清高了。年轻男人在爱米丽小姐这类的女人看来都不是什么好货色。长久以往,我们都把她们这家人看做是一幅活人画:爱米丽小姐身材苗条,立于父亲身后;父亲站在前面,双脚叉开,背对爱米丽,手里握着马鞭;二人站在一扇后开的前门中间。所以当她接近三十岁,依然孑然一身,准确地说,我们并没有欣喜之心,反而觉得我们先前的看法得到了证实。即使她家有疯癫的遗传,要是遇到机会,她也不应断然放弃。   

【翻译津要】

(63)中themeselves和they指the Griersons,为了避免指代不清,翻译时采用代词还原增益法,对代词加以还原。Held themselves a litter too high what they really were,概括式译为“自命清高”。(64)也可译为:米丽小姐这类女人对什么年轻男子都瞧不上眼。(65)是静态的细节描写。英语(介词,分词)复合结构在文学作品中的功效之一,便是进行静态。因此,翻译时,要注意描写对象的细节和方位,句子不宜太长。

 (68)When her father died, it got about that the house was all that was left to her; and in a way, people were glad. (69)At last they could pity Miss Emily. (70)Being left alone, and a pauper, she had become humanized. (71)Now she too would know the old thrill and the old despair of a penny more or less.

【原文解读】

此段是一个过渡段,同时具有悬念设置作用。爱米丽父亲的死,对镇上的人或爱米丽本人来都应该说是一件好事,因为对镇上的人来说,爱米丽孑然一身是因为她的父亲古板缘故导致她无法与同龄男子接触。她父亲一死,镇上年轻男子自然就有了机会。对爱米丽来说,孤单清苦会让她改变,早应该懂人情世故了。正常人都会这样想。但事实如何呢了?镇上的年轻男子真的得到这种机会了吗?

【汉语译文】

父亲死后,传说那幢房子全部留给了她;人们也有点高兴。他们终于可以向她表达怜悯之情了。孤单清苦,她早该懂人情世故了。如今她也该体会到多一分钱则喜,少一分钱则愁的那种人之常情了。

【翻译津要】

(68)it 为形式主语,真正的主语为that clause。got about意为“becomes well known”。It got about译为:传说。In a way意为:a little,somewhat。(69)是一个虚拟语气,对过去的假设。(71)仍然是虚拟语气,对现在的假设。其中old是指“惯常的”“常有的”,故译为“人之常情”。对a penny more or less 采取了归化处理,译为“多一分钱则喜,少一分钱则愁”。

 (72)The day after his death all the ladies prepared to call at the house and offer condolence and aid, as is our custom. (73) Miss Emily met them at the door, dressed as usual and with no trace of grief on her face. (74)She told them that her father was not dead. (75) She did that for three days, with the ministers calling on her, and the doctors, trying to persuade her to let them dispose of the body. (76)Just as they were about to resort to law and force, she broke down, and they buried her father quickly.

【原文解读】

此段通过对爱米丽父亲的丧事的描写,(72)人死入殓下葬,家属悲戚、邻里乡相亲吊唁,本为人情世故。但(73)爱米丽依着如旧,全无悲伤之情。作者通过静态的细节描写,刻画爱米丽的内心活动:(74)她父亲没有死(读者读到这里时,读者会产生两种理解:一是父亲死亡给她的打击,一是爱米丽的不正常有家族的遗传,这样就与前文疯癫的姑奶奶相互照应了),和爱米丽的倔强性格(75):连续三天都不埋葬自己的父亲,无论谁来劝告,都不理睬,直到(76)人们准备诉诸法律和武力,爱米丽自己崩溃时,人们才赶紧帮忙埋葬了她的父亲。为什么人们要赶紧(quickly)把她父亲埋掉了呢?

【汉语译文】

她父亲死后的第二天,镇上所有的女人都准备去她家吊唁和提供帮助,这是我们的习俗。爱米丽小姐在家门口接待了她们,依着和往日一样,脸上也没有丝毫悲伤。她告诉来访者,她父亲没有死。连续三天都这样,无论是来访的牧师们,还是医生们,都劝她让他们把尸体处理掉。正当他们准备诉诸法律和武力时,爱米丽崩溃了,这时,他们才赶紧把她父亲给埋掉了。

【翻译津要】

(72)其中all the ladies是指镇上的女人,call at the house and offer condolence 指登门吊唁。as is our custom 翻译时独立处理成小句。(75)中with the ministers calling on her, and the doctors, trying to persuade her to let them dispose of the body的难点是两个逗号的作用。第一个逗号和连词and旨在表明with 有两个名词短语宾语,第二逗号旨在说明,trying的逻辑主语有两个:一个是the ministers,一个是the doctors,翻译时把calling on her译为前置定语,把and处理为“无论……,还是…….,”可以巧妙地把原文的意思翻译出来。

 (77)We did not say she was crazy then. (78)We believed she had to do that. (79)We remembered all the young men her father had driven away, and (80)we knew that with nothing left, (81)she would have to cling to that which had robbed her, as people will.

【原文解读】

(77)交代爱米丽的反常行为并非家族的疯病遗传,并作出解释(78):身不由己。(79)(80)解释反常行为的原因。(81)重新交代和解释反常行为是人之常情即as people will。

【汉语译文】

我们并不是说她当时就疯了,反倒认为她的反常是身不由己,还记得,她父亲把所有的青年小伙都驱赶走了,也知道她如今一无所有了,她才死死的抓住剥夺她一切的那个人,其实,是人都会这样。

【翻译津要】

(77)中的then是修饰she was crazy,而非修饰We did not say,翻译时要注意位置。(78)do that 指上一段中的“(74)She told them that her father was not dead. (75) She did that for three days ”翻译时,处理为“反常”, (77) 、(78)、 (79) 和(80)的主语都是we,翻译时合并在一起。(81)翻译时增加“才”来表明因果关系,其中as people will是字眼,翻译要体现出来处理。


III

(82)SHE WAS SICK for a long time. (83)When we saw her again, her hair was cut short, making her look like a girl, with a vague resemblance to those angels in colored church windows--sort of tragic and serene.

【原文解读】

(82)父亲的死对爱米丽打击很大,所以病了好长一段时间。(83) 作者通过细节描写爱米丽的外观和打扮:当人们再见到她时,她已经焕然一新。焕然一新给人希望,读者会为爱米丽的命运松一口气,但作者巧妙地用一个明喻with a vague resemblance to those angels,并用解释性词语sort of tragic and serene,埋下结局悲惨的丝线或伏笔。把刚刚升起的希望蒙上一层悲戚的忧伤。

【汉语译文】

她病了好长一段时间。再见她时,她已剪短了头发,小姑娘打扮,那样子有点像教堂里彩色玻璃窗上的天使——有些悲伤,有点肃穆。

【翻译津要】

(83)把主语her hair 替换为“她”

 (84)The town had just let the contracts for paving the sidewalks, and in the summer after her father's death they began the work. (85)The construction company came with riggers and mules and machinery, and a foreman named Homer Barron, a Yankee--a big, dark, ready man, with a big voice and eyes lighter than his face. (86)The little boys would follow in groups to hear him cuss the riggers, and the riggers singing in time to the rise and fall of picks. (87)Pretty soon he knew everybody in town. (88)Whenever you heard a lot of laughing anywhere about the square, Homer Barron would be in the center of the group. (89)Presently we began to see him and Miss Emily on Sunday afternoons driving in the yellow-wheeled buggy and the matched team of bays from the livery stable.

【原文解读】

(84)此句用过去完成时,对前文(76)句中的quickly一词作出交代;原来镇上要铺设人行道。(85)交代前文埋伏的线索:她的心上人----心上人跟随建筑公司来的。作者对爱米丽的心上人进行简洁的肖像描写:“大个子、黑皮肤,大嗓门儿,做事手脚麻利,黯黑的脸色衬出炯炯的眼神。”旨在说明爱米丽与心上人在形象上反差太大,不相匹配。(88)(89)描写爱米丽的心上人在行为上与爱米丽的不匹配。

【汉语译文】

原来镇政府刚刚签订了铺设人行道的合同,而动工时间就在她父亲去世那年夏天。建筑公司带来了一批劳工、骡子和机器,工头是个北方佬,名叫霍默.巴伦,大个子、黑皮肤,大嗓门儿,做事手脚麻利,黯黑的脸色衬出炯炯的眼神。他身后跟着一群群孩子,听他咒骂劳工,而劳工们却随着凿子起落有节奏地哼着劳动号子。不久,全镇的人他都认识了。在广场四周,只要能听到呵呵笑声的地方,霍默.巴伦必定在人群的中心。没过多久,每逢礼拜天下午,都可以见到他和爱米丽小姐一起驾着轻便马车出游,枣红色的马是从出租店租来,与黄色车轮的马车十分匹配。

【翻译津要】

(84)此句用过去完成时,翻译时增加了“原来”以表示对前文(76)句中的quickly一词作出的交代。句中“and in the summer after…”具有强调时间的含义,翻译时的句式也要体现出来。(85)主句是叙述,而并用形容词+名词和with+独立主格结构,对Homer Barron进行了白描。翻译时按汉语常见的描写翻译即可,当然翻译时需要增添些形容词的修饰对象:如大“个子”,黑“皮肤”,eyes lighter than his face,考虑到此人是黑皮肤,那么他的脸自然黯黑,翻译时增添了“黯黑的”。Yankee指美国北部各州的人 (Northerner),此处译为“北方佬”。(86)译文处理成汉语存现句。(87)译文用原文的宾语做汉语的话题主语。(89)中的Presently与(87)句中的Pretty soon意思相同。Livery stable简称livery 指美国的马匹(马车)出租店或马匹寄养场。原文的bays中的复数s概念在译文中体现不出来。

 (90)At first we were glad that Miss Emily would have an interest, because the ladies all said, “Of course a Grierson would not think seriously of a Northerner, a day laborer.” (91)But there were still others, older people, who said that even grief could not cause a real lady to forget noblesse oblige- -without calling it noblesse oblige. (92)They just said, “Poor Emily. Her kinsfolk should come to her.” (93)She had some kin in Alabama; but years ago her father had fallen out with them over the estate of old lady Wyatt, the crazy woman, and there was no communication between the two families. (94)They had not even been represented at the funeral.

【原文解读】

行为不合适宜是反常,其实行为矫枉过正同样是反常。此段描写爱米丽矫枉过正的反常行为。当然不同的人有不同的看法,(90)“我们”年轻人为爱米丽感到高兴,因为她不可能爱上一个劳工;但(91)代表守旧的老人却有不同的认识,认为,贵妇人应该有贵妇人的样子。于是(92)认为,爱米丽需要有亲戚的照料才守规矩。然而 (93) 虽然有亲戚,毕竟因为争夺姑奶奶怀亚特的房产而导致亲戚之间(94)死不往来。

【汉语译文】

起初,我们都很高兴,爱米丽小姐总算有了爱好,因为女人们都说:“格利尔逊肯定不会看上一个北方佬,一个拿日工资的劳工。”不过也还有一些人,即一些上了年纪的人,说,即使悲伤也不至于叫一个高贵的妇女忘记自己“贵人责重”吧,贵人责重无须叮嘱啊。他们只是说:“可怜的爱米丽,她的亲属应该到这儿来一下。”她有亲戚在亚拉巴马州;但多年前,她父亲为争疯癫婆怀亚特的房产问题而与他们闹翻了,从此以后,两家再也没有往来了。即使是爱米丽父亲的葬礼,他们也没有派代表参加。

【翻译津要】

(90)根据上下文增加了“总算”(表示经过相当长的时间或经过一番努力以后某种愿望终于实现)。think seriously of 表示“看重”、“慎重思考”,此处译为“看上”。(91) Still others中others是针对the ladies而言的,(94)翻译时把represent处理成名词。

 (95)And as soon as the old people said, “Poor Emily,” the whispering began. (96) “Do you suppose it’s really so?” they said to one another. “Of course it is. What else could . . .” (97)This behind their hands; rustling of craned silk and satin behind jalousies closed upon the sun of Sunday afternoon as the thin, swift clop-clop-clop of the matched team passed: “Poor Emily.”

【原文解读】

此段描写老辈人面对爱米丽的反常行为,感到无比惋惜(95),并且交头接耳起来(96);但毕竟还想给格里尔逊家族留一点情面,因此,交头接耳也是悄悄的(97)。这种交头接耳的议论正好表明旧传统的顽固。

【汉语译文】

一说到“可怜的爱米丽”,老人们就是开始交头接耳了。他们议论道:“你看,当真有那么回事吗?”“当然啦。那还能有什么别的事……?”声音从他们的手指缝传出来;只听见清脆而疾驰的马蹄声声,只见马车百叶窗紧闭以抵御周日午后骄阳,窗后的绸缎发出窸窣声:“可怜的爱米丽。”

【翻译津要】

(95)whispering是一个声音形象词,译文处理成视觉形象词:“交头接耳”。(97) “This …afternoon”是两个独立主格结构,这种结构往往具有很强的细节描写作用。只要用汉语的主位结构翻译即可。

 (98)She carried her head high enough--even when we believed that she was fallen. (99)It was as if she demanded more than ever the recognition of her dignity as the last Grierson; (100)as if it had wanted that touch of earthiness to reaffirm her imperviousness. (101)Like when she bought the rat poison, the arsenic. (102)That was over a year after they had begun to say “Poor Emily,” and while the two female cousins were visiting her.

【原文解读】

(98)主从句形成对比描写作用,主句描写爱米丽行为上“高昂着头”,从句是从全镇上人角度描写爱米丽的“堕落”。(99)(100)是作者评述爱米丽的性格和行为反常的心理。(101)(102)作者想通过举例证明爱米丽倔强的性格,从写作角度看起过渡作用。

【汉语译文】

爱米丽高昂着头——即使我们都认为她已经堕落;仿佛她不仅仅想要人们承认她就是格里尔逊家族末代的尊严;仿佛需要同世俗接触才能重新确认她那倔强的性格。拿她买耗子药砒霜的事来说吧。也就是人们开始说“可怜的爱米丽”之后一年多发生的事,当时她的两个堂姐妹正好来看望她。

【翻译津要】

(98) carried her head high enough译为:“高昂着头”,汉语“昂”就是“高”,“高昂”中的高起强调作用。(99)demanded more than字面义为:比……需要的还多,译为:“不仅仅想要……”;the recognition of…as…采用词类转移法,译为:“承认……是……”(100)wanted 与前一句中的demanded 意思相同。Imperviousness指爱米丽倔强的性格。Like意为“take…for example”口语体,译为:“拿……来说”。

 (103) “I want some poison,” she said to the druggist. (104)She was over thirty then, still a slight woman, though thinner than usual, with cold, haughty black eyes in a face the flesh of which was strained across the temples and about the eyesockets as you imagine a lighthouse-keeper's face ought to look. (105) “I want some poison,” she said.

“Yes, Miss Emily. What kind? For rats and such? I’d recom--”

“I want the best you have. I don’t care what kind.”

The druggist named several. “They’ll kill anything up to an elephant. But what you want is--”

“Arsenic,” Miss Emily said. “Is that a good one?”

“Is . . . arsenic? Yes, ma’am. But what you want--”

“I want arsenic.”

【原文解读】

(103)承接上文(101)句,(104)是描写句,描写爱米丽的音容笑貌和性格,外貌描写与(24)—(27)形成对比性描写;脸部特征描写主要为了刻画爱米丽的性格,(105)通过对话来印证爱米丽的性格:严峻、冷酷和倔强。

【汉语译文】

“买毒药,”她对药剂师说道。当时她已经三十多了,依然是一个身细腰纤的女人,比平常还要清瘦,一双黑色的眼睛显得冷峻高傲,脸上太阳穴和眼窝处,肌肉紧绷,那副模样好像只有灯塔守望者才应该具有的。“买点毒药。”爱米丽说道。

“好的,爱米丽小姐。要买哪一种?是毒耗子一类的药吗?我建议……”

“拿店里最灵的药。种类不论。”

药剂师一连说了好几种药名。“这些药什么都毒得死,就是大象也不例外。不过,你想要……”

“砒霜,”爱米丽小姐说,“灵不灵?”

“是……砒霜?好的,小姐。可你想要……”

“砒霜。”

【翻译津要】

(104)slight,形容人时,指纤细,译为:身细腰纤。black eyes in a face中in a face可以遗而不译,(105)翻译时要体现爱米丽言语中体现出来的冷酷和倔强:言语要简洁。

 (106)The druggist looked down at her. (107)She looked back at him, erect, her face like a strained flag, her face like a strained flag. (108) “Why, of course,” the druggist said. “If that’s what you want. But the law requires you to tell what you are going to use it for.”

【原文解读】

(106)表示药剂师对爱米丽买砒霜感到惊奇和疑惑。(107)描写出爱米丽的倔强(looked back)、高傲(erect)、严峻(her face like a strained flag).(108)作者精心设计药剂师的答话,具有双重作用:一是诱导读者与前文提及的气味事件相联系;二是暗示爱米丽的爱情的悲惨结局。

【汉语译文】

药剂师朝下看着她。爱米丽挺直着身,回敬了他一眼,那脸绷得像凿出来的石板。“嗯嗯,当然有,”药剂师说道,“如果你真想要这种药。可是,按法律规定,你得说明用途。”

【翻译津要】

(106)looked down at是指药剂师柜台朝下看。(107)翻译成三个分句,her face like a strained flag其中flag指石板,strained在此处指人工修整或开凿,此处译为:凿出来的石板

 (109)Miss Emily just stared at him, (110)her head tilted back in order to look him eye for eye, (111) until he looked away and went and got the arsenic and wrapped it up. The Negro delivery boy brought her the package; the druggist didn't come back. (112)When she opened the package at home there was written on the box, under the skull and bones: “For rats.”

【原文解读】

如果前文中(27)对爱米丽的眼睛的描写是为了说明爱米丽的形象的恐惧:“她的那两只眼睛不停地转悠着,一会儿瞧瞧这张面孔,一会儿看看那张脸蛋,那眼睛啊,都深陷在满脸隆起的赘肉里了,就像揉在生面团中的两个小煤球”,那么此句(109)作者用stare一词再次描写爱米丽的眼睛(109),充分表现出爱米丽对药剂师所说的法律的不削一顾(110)。前后两次爱米丽的眼睛都让被视者感到恐惧(111),都说明了爱米丽的冷峻和孤傲。(112)与(102)相互呼应,让读者与前文提及的气味事件相联系,具有强化读者的这种联系,从而达到小说结尾出乎意料的效果。

【汉语译文】

爱米丽小姐目不转睛地盯着他,头向后仰着,双眼正视着他,直到药剂师移开目光,转身拿砒霜包好。把那包药送出来的是店里的黑人送货员,而药剂师再也没有露过面。爱米丽回到家,打开药包,盒子上有个骷髅标记,标记下注明:“杀鼠专用。”

【翻译津要】

(109)stare: look fixedly often with wide-open eyes,译为:“目不转睛地盯着”(110) 不要字对字地翻译,译为:“头向后仰着,双眼正视着他”。


IV

(113)So THE NEXT day we all said, “She will kill herself”; (114)and we said it would be the best thing. (115)When she had first begun to be seen with Homer Barron, we had said, “She will marry him.” (116)Then we said, “She will persuade him yet,” because Homer himself had remarked--he liked men, and it was known that he drank with the younger men in the Elks' Club--that he was not a marrying man. (117)Later we said, “Poor Emily” behind the jalousies as they passed on Sunday afternoon in the glittering buggy, (118)Miss Emily with her head high and (119)Homer Barron with his hat cocked and a cigar in his teeth, reins and whip in a yellow glove.

【原文解读】

当读者以为爱米丽买药杀鼠时,(113)突然出人意料地交代爱米丽要自杀,使得小说达到了高潮。人们之所以认为爱米丽要自杀而且是再好不过的事了(114),是因为爱米丽毕竟是(6)“代表着一个传统、一种职责;她既是人们关注的目标,也是全镇传承下来对她应尽的义务”,如今爱米丽堕落了,不自杀脸面何存?这表明了镇上人们的守旧传统。(115)开始交代爱米丽违背传统的事情经过,原来爱米丽结识了自己的心上人霍默.巴伦。最初人们都说,她会下嫁给他。但后来(116)人们说,爱米丽会劝心上人与她结婚,并交代了其中原因:霍默.巴伦不愿结婚。了解这种情况后,人们开始同情爱米丽,只要见到两人在一起时,都禁不住脱口而出“可怜的爱米丽”,其原因在于爱米丽是一个具有高贵传统的女性(118),而(119)霍默.巴伦不过是地位低下而又粗俗的劳工,二者极为不般配。

【汉语译文】

第二天,我们都说:“她要自杀。”要说啊,这事再好不过了。第一次看见她与霍默.巴伦在一起时,我们就说过,“她会嫁给他。”接着,我们又说,“她还得说服他才行,”因为霍默自己说喜欢跟男人在一起——,谁都知道他和年轻人在麋鹿俱乐部一起喝酒——照他的说法,他这个人不宜结婚。后来,每当礼拜日下午那耀眼的马车路过时,爱米丽总是高昂着头,霍默.巴伦斜戴着帽子,嘴里叼着雪茄,戴着黄手套的那只手握着马缰和马鞭;见此情景,我们都会在百叶窗后禁不住说一声:“可怜的爱米丽。”

【翻译津要】

(114)易句法中的正反法,译为:“这事再好不过了”。(117)jalousies意为:百叶窗,buggy意为:四轮轻便马车。(118)和(119)是两个独立主格结构,对比性或反差性白描;因此翻译(119)时用词要体现出霍默.巴伦的低俗性:斜戴着帽子,叼着雪茄。

(120)Then some of the ladies began to say that it was a disgrace to the town and a bad example to the young people. (121)The men did not want to interfere, but at last the ladies forced the Baptist minister--Miss Emily's people were Episcopal-- to call upon her. (122)He would never divulge what happened during that interview, but he refused to go back again. (123) The next Sunday they again drove about the streets, and(124) the following day the minister's wife wrote to Miss Emily’s relations in Alabama.

【原文解读】

(120)对前面(114)“这事(自杀)再好不过了”作出交代。女人们认为爱米丽与劳工头霍默.巴伦鬼混是全镇的耻辱,该死。(121)男人们不太关心,所以女人只好敦促牧师前去劝说爱米丽。但按爱米丽的个性,结果不言而喻(122),牧师会晤爱米丽的细节虽然不详,但牧师再也不想登爱米丽的家门了。爱米丽依然故我(123),但女人们并没有放弃,(124)牧师的老婆写信给爱米丽的亲戚,希望她的亲戚前来管一管爱米丽。

【汉语译文】

后来,有些女人开始说,这是镇上的一大耻辱,给年轻人树立了一个坏榜样。而男人们又无意介入,但最后还是女人们敦促浸礼会牧师-----爱米丽一家人都信奉圣公会-----去拜会她。拜会过程,牧师不愿透露,但他再也不愿去了。第二个礼拜天,他们又驾着马车在街上兜风,第二天,牧师的老婆写信给爱米丽住在亚拉巴马的亲戚。

【翻译津要】

(123) drove about the streets翻译时增加了“兜风”两字。

 (125)So she had blood-kin under her roof again and we sat back to watch developments. (126)At first nothing happened. Then we were sure that they were to be married. (127)We learned that Miss Emily had been to the jeweler's and ordered a man’s toilet set in silver, with the letters H. B. on each piece. (128)Two days later we learned that she had bought a complete outfit of men's clothing, including a nightshirt, and we said, “They are married.” (129)We were really glad. (130)We were glad because the two female cousins were even more Grierson than Miss Emily had ever been.

【原文解读】

镇上的人眼见自己劝说无用,只好搬来亲戚作为救兵(125),原文中的again表明爱米丽的亲戚曾经来过她家,即前文所说的爱米丽父亲为了争夺其姑奶奶的房产而曾来过爱米丽家。此次属于再次来访。(126)起初,事情并非人们所期望的那样:爱米丽会改邪归正。反而人们确定了爱米丽马上就要结婚了。因为(127)人们得知爱米丽准备了一切结婚用品:首饰、男性盥洗用品,男士衣服,包括睡衣(128)。既然既成事实,(129)人们反倒高兴起来,因为(130)格里尔逊家族虽然堕落了一个爱米丽,格里尔逊家族所代表的传统并未因为爱米丽的堕落而消失,毕竟还有爱米丽的堂姐妹。

【汉语译文】

于是,她家直系亲属又来了一趟,我们呢,回家坐等事态的发展。起初风平浪静。接着,听说他们就要结婚了,后来还听说,爱米丽小姐去过珠宝店,还订购了一套男人盥洗用品,每件用品上都刻有“霍.巴”。两天后,我们又听说,她购买了一套男士服装,还有睡衣,所以我们说:“他们结婚了。”我们为此还真高兴,高兴的原因是,如果说爱米丽小姐曾经代表了格里尔逊家族的传统,那么如今两位堂姐妹更具有格里尔逊家族的风范。

【翻译津要】

(125) blood-kin 指直系亲属,under her roof again意为:再次来到爱米丽家。 (130)翻译时采用刈分法将“the two female cousins were even more Grierson than Miss Emily had ever been刈分为两个小句 “the two female cousins were even more Grierson”和“Miss Emily had ever been (Grierson)”,先译后者,后译前者,并用连接词连接。

 (131)So we were not surprised when Homer Barron--the streets had been finished some time since--was gone. (132)We were a little disappointed that there was not a public blowing-off, but we believed that he had gone on to prepare for Miss Emily's coming, or to give her a chance to get rid of the cousins. (133) (By that time it was a cabal, and we were all Miss Emily’s allies to help circumvent the cousins.) (134)Sure enough, after another week they departed.(135)And, as we had expected all along, within three days Homer Barron was back in town. (136)A neighbor saw the Negro man admit him at the kitchen door at dusk one evening.

【原文解读】

(131)作者此处再次使用was gone,其作用与前文(42)中使用went away如同一辙,让读者误认为是“离开了”,(132),(135),(136)是作者加强(42)设计的读者误解效果。

【汉语译文】

霍默.巴伦走了后,我们一点也不感到惊奇,因为街道铺设工程完工已经有好一阵子了。让我们感到有点失望的是缺少了吹吹打打的欢送场面,但我们还是相信霍默.巴伦走了是去准备迎娶爱米丽小姐,或者给她一个机会好打发走两个堂妹。(当时我们已经形成了一个私党,力挺爱米丽小姐,帮她收拾这对堂姐妹。)一点不错,过了一星期,这对堂姐妹就走了。不出所料,霍默.巴伦又回来到了镇上。一个邻居亲眼目睹了爱米丽家的黑仆在一个黄昏把他从厨房门接了进去。

【翻译津要】

(131)was gone 与(42)中went away翻译时保持用词一致:走了。

 (137)And that was the last we saw of Homer Barron. (138)And of Miss Emily for some time.(139)The Negro man went in and out with the market basket, but the front door remained closed.(140)Now and then we would see her at a window for a moment, as the men did that night when they sprinkled the lime, but for almost six months she did not appear on the streets. (141)Then we knew that this was to be expected too; (142)as if that quality of her father which had thwarted her woman’s life so many times had been too virulent and too furious to die.

【原文解读】

(137)具有悬念设置作用:最后一次见到霍默.巴伦,是指他逃跑了还是死了?如果死了,又是怎么死的呢?(138)是承接(137)的省略句,补充完整为And we had seen of Miss Emily for some time.此句加深了读者对霍默.巴伦的不见踪影的猜疑。(139)和(140)说明了爱米丽遭受爱情的打击,其中(140)再次提及气味事件,从而让读者把气味事件联系起来。(141)爱米丽爱情的结果,是可想而知的事情,其原因是(142)爱米丽父亲性格对她的影响。

【汉语译文】

那是我们最后一次见到霍默.巴伦。爱米丽小姐呢,我们则有一段间没有见过她了。黑人倒是提着篮子进进出出,但前门总是关着。偶尔还可以从窗户上看到她的身影闪现,就像人们撒石灰那天晚上见到的情景一样,但几乎有六个月没见她上过街了。我们知道,这一切也是可以预料的;好像父亲的性格对她这样的女人的生活增添了不少的麻烦,而这种性格似乎太恶毒,太极端了,至今难以消除。

【翻译津要】

(138)理解时要补充完整,即And we had seen of Miss Emily for some time.翻译时按补充完整的句子翻译即可。(140) see her at a window for a moment其中 for a moment意为:片刻,一会儿,译为:“还可以从窗户上看到她的身影闪现”(闪现:短暂地出现;忽然出现)。

 (143)When we next saw Miss Emily, she had grown fat and her hair was turning gray. (144)During the next few years it grew grayer and grayer until it attained an even pepper-and-salt iron-gray, when it ceased turning. (145)Up to the day of her death at seventy-four it was still that vigorous iron-gray, like the hair of an active man.

【原文解读】

(143)-(145)描写爱米丽的外貌的变化:发福、头发灰白。

【汉语译文】

再次见到爱米丽小姐时,她已经身体发福,而头发逐渐灰白起来。随后几年里,她的头发越来越灰,变成了白盐参胡椒般的铁灰色,随后再也没有变过。到了她七十四岁过世时,都保持着她那旺盛的铁灰色,像是正值当年的男人的头发。

【翻译津要】

(143)此处中fat,作者没有贬义,只是客观叙述,故译为:发福。was turning gray,表示渐进过程,译为:逐渐灰白起来。

 (146)From that time on her front door remained closed, save for a period of six or seven years, when she was about forty, during which she gave lessons in china-painting. (147)Shefitted up a studio in one of the downstairs rooms, where the daughters and granddaughters of Colonel Sartoris’ contemporaries were sent to her with the same regularity and in the same spirit that they were sent to church on Sundays with a twenty-five-cent piece for the collection plate. (148)Meanwhile her taxes had been remitted.

【原文解读】

此段(146)-(147)描写爱米丽唯一次与外界的接触。(148)交代爱米丽前文提及的免税事由。

【汉语译文】

从那时起,她的前门再也没有打开过,只有她四十开外时,大约有六七年时间前门开过。在那段时间,她开课教授瓷器彩绘。她在楼下的一间房里布置了一间画室。萨特里斯上校同时代的人都把女儿,孙女送到她那儿去学习,而且很按时,那精神与礼拜天把她们送去教堂,给她们二毛五分硬币以备放在募捐盘中的情形没什么区别。那时,她的税收早已豁免了。

【翻译津要】

(146)翻译时采用易句法中:正反法,译为:再也没有打开过。(147)fit up:布置;where…是定语从句,此句翻译时,采用刈分法把句子刈分成若干短句。

 (149)Then the newer generation became the backbone and the spirit of the town, and the painting pupils grew up and fell away and did not send their children to her with boxes of color and tedious brushes and pictures cut from the ladies’ magazines. (150)The front door closed upon the last one and remained closed for good. (151)When the town got free postal delivery, Miss Emily alone refused to let them fasten the metal numbers above her door and attach a mailbox to it. (152)She would not listen to them.

【原文解读】

时过境迁,物非人非,新一代成长为为骨干和灵魂(149),昔日的学生长大成人,纷纷离开了爱米丽,无人再到爱米丽家学习画画,她的前门(150)自然就关闭了,而且再也没有开过。 (151)爱米丽无法接受世事沧桑,拒绝新生事物,也不听人解释(152);这表明父亲对爱米丽性格的影响:固执、倔强、守旧。

【汉语译文】

后来,新一代成了镇上的骨干和灵魂,那些学画的孩子已经长达成人,相继离开了,她们没有让自己的女儿带着调色盒,讨厌的画笔和从女士杂志上剪下的图画到爱米丽小姐家学绘画。最后一个学生走后,前门就关了,而且再也没有打开过。镇上实行免费邮递时,唯独爱米丽小姐拒绝在她家门上钉金属门牌号,附设邮箱。她也不听他们解释。

【翻译津要】

(150) the last one指最后一个学生;for good指for ever。

 (153)Daily, monthly, yearly we watched the Negro grow grayer and more stooped, going in and out with the market basket. (154)Each December we sent her a tax notice, which would be returned by the post office a week later, unclaimed. (155)Now and then we would see her in one of the downstairs windows--she had evidently shut up the top floor of the house--like the carven torso of an idol in a niche, looking or not looking at us, we could never tell which.(156)Thus she passed from generation to generation--dear, inescapable, impervious, tranquil, and perverse.

【原文解读】

此段叙述时过境迁,物非人非,但爱米丽依然保持自己倔强的个性。

【汉语译文】

日复一日,月复一月,年复一年。只见那黑人,头发白了,背也驼了,依然提着菜篮子进进出出。每年十二月,我们都寄给她一张纳税通知单,但一星期后,又被邮局退了回来,无人认领。时不时地,我们在楼下的一个窗口——显然她把自己封闭在阁楼上了——还可看到她的身影。那身影活像神龛中供奉的无头神像,是不是在看我们,我们也拿不准。就这样,一代又一代过去了,她始终保持着——高贵傲然,临危不惧,性格倔强,镇定自如,怪僻乖张。

【翻译津要】

(153) Daily, monthly, yearly 分别译为三个小句。(154)unclaimed由claim派生而来;claim:to ask for especially as a right字面义为:认领。unclaimed 字面义为:无人认领。(156) dear, inescapable, impervious, tranquil, and perverse翻译成五个四字短语。

 (157)And so she died. (158) Fell ill in the house filled with dust and shadows, with only adoddering Negro man to wait on her. (159)We did not even know she was sick; (160)we had long since given up trying to get any information from the Negro. (161) He talked to no one, probably not even to her, for his voice had grown harsh and rusty, as if from disuse.

(162)She died in one of the downstairs rooms, in a heavy walnut bed with a curtain, her gray head propped on a pillow yellow and moldy with age and lack of sunlight.

【原文解读】

(157)是承接(156),表明爱米丽的死是其性格(156)使然。(158)交代死亡经过:生病;(159)(160)通过叙事描写爱米丽的孤僻性格。(161)有其主必有其仆,黑人性格也颇显孤僻。(162)详细描绘爱米丽死时的惨景。

【汉语译文】

她就这样走了。死前,她病倒在一栋尘埃遍地,魅影憧憧的屋子里,只有一个老态龙钟的黑人侍候她。她病倒了,连我们都不知道,我们也懒得从黑人那儿打听消息了。况且,那黑人见谁也不啃声,恐怕见了她也是如此。由于长期不啃声,他的嗓子早已沙哑了。

她死在楼下一间屋子里,笨重的胡桃木床挂着床帏,她那长满铁灰色的头枕着枕头,因长年不见阳光,枕头已经泛黄发霉了。

【翻译津要】

(158) Fell ill in the house filled with dust and shadows,翻译时增加了“死前”以便过渡。(160) we had long since given up翻译时采用正反法,译为:我们也无意。(161)翻译时增添“况且”。


V

(163)THE NEGRO met the first of the ladies at the front door and let them in, with theirhushed, sibilant voices and their quick, curious glances, and then he disappeared. (164)He walked right through the house and out the back and was not seen again.

【原文解读】

(163)-(164)描写镇上人们前来送丧的过程,并对黑人进行了概括式的白描。

【汉语译文】

黑人站在前门口迎接第一批妇女,把她们引进了屋子。她们悄声细语,好奇地东瞧瞧西瞅瞅。黑人转眼就不见了。他穿过屋子,出了后门,再也不见踪影了。

【翻译津要】

(163)with their hushed, sibilant voices中sibilant是象声词,翻译时消声处理,voices为复数,翻译时采取同义重复,译为:她们悄声细语,their quick, curious glances,其中glances复数采取同义反复表示,quick融合其中,译为“东瞧瞧西瞅瞅”。

 (165)The two female cousins came at once. (166)They held the funeral on the second day, with the town coming to look at Miss Emily beneath a mass of bought flowers, with the crayon face of her father musing profoundly above the bier and the ladies sibilant and macabre; and(167) the very old men --some in their brushed Confederate uniforms--on the porch and the lawn, talking of Miss Emily as if she had been a contemporary of theirs, believing that they had danced with her and courted her perhaps, confusing time with its mathematical progression, as the old do, to whom all the past is not a diminishing road but, instead, a huge meadow which no winter ever quite touches, divided from them now by the narrow bottle-neck of the most recent decade of years.

【原文解读】

此段描述全镇的人前来吊唁爱米丽场面:(166)既有对爱米丽父亲画像的描述,又有对参加吊唁的女人的描写,(167)还有对老年男人描写。对爱米丽父亲画像的描写,再次揭示了父亲对爱米丽的影响,爱米丽的死是其父亲影响的结果。对参加吊唁女人和对老年男人的描写,企图说明人们对旧传统的敬畏,同时作者讽刺了老年男人攀龙附势的心态。

【汉语译文】

说来,两位堂姐妹就来了,他们第二天就举行了葬礼,全镇的人都来吊唁鲜花覆盖的爱米丽,棺材架上方挂着她父亲的炭笔画像,表情严肃深沉;女人们悄声细语、战战兢兢。而那些老年男人呢——有些还床上刷洗干净的南方同盟军制服——在走廊里,草坪上议论着爱米丽小姐,仿佛她就是他们同时代的人,还说,跟她逃过舞,兴许还向她求过婚呢,他们按数学级数来推算,混淆了时间,这是老年人的通病。对老人来说,过去不是一条越走越窄的路,而是一片没有冬天的大草地,而只是最近十年才像窄小的瓶颈般将他们与过去隔断了。

【翻译津要】

(165) came at once 译为:说来……就来。(166)结构:主句+with+独立主格结构,+with+独立主格结构。翻译时,将独立主格结构和从句刈分为小句。Macabre意为:可怕,毛骨悚然。此处译为:战战兢兢。a huge meadow which no winter ever quite touches译为:一片没有冬天的大草地。

 (168)Already we knew that there was one room in that region above stairs which no one had seen in forty years, and which would have to be forced. (169)They waited until Miss Emily was decently in the ground before they opened it.

【原文解读】

此段是一个过渡段,旨在描写下面爱米丽的卧室。

【汉语译文】

我们早就知道,楼上那个地方有一间屋子,四十年了谁也没有进去过,只能踹门而入了。要等爱米丽小姐下葬后,他们才去开门。

【翻译津要】

(168)one room in that region above stairs which no one had seen in forty years, and which would have to be forced中which关系代词,指代room,原文是“无人见过房间”,译为:“谁也没有进去过”。

 (170)The violence of breaking down the door seemed to fill this room with pervading dust.(171)A thin, acrid pall as of the tomb seemed to lie everywhere upon this room decked and furnished as for a bridal: upon the valance curtains of faded rose color, upon the rose-shadedlights, upon the dressing table, upon the delicate array of crystal and the man’s toilet things backed with tarnished silver, silver so tarnished that the monogram was obscured. (172)Among them lay a collar and tie, as if they had just been removed, which, lifted, left upon the surface a pale crescent in the dust. (173)Upon a chair hung the suit, carefully folded; beneath it the two mute shoes and the discarded socks.

【原文解读】

此段对爱米丽的卧室环境进行了细节描写。文学作品中一切环境描写都具有一定的意图,此段描写也烘托出一种悲情气氛,并点出小说的主题:玫瑰(—爱情—婚姻—死亡)(171)。此处是整篇小说中玫瑰唯一出现的地方。

【汉语译文】

砰地一下踹开了,顿时屋里仿佛弥漫着灰尘。房间仿佛曾是一间装饰一新的新房,如今如坟墓一般发出淡淡的、呛人的气味,四处渗透出阴森森气氛:褪色了的玫瑰色窗帘,阴暗的玫瑰色灯光,梳妆台,一排精细的水晶饰品,还有白银底色的盥洗用品,不过白银制品已经失去的光泽,连刻在上面的字迹也都看不清了。其中有一条硬领和领带,仿佛是从身上取下来的,然后提起来,在台面上留下淡淡的月牙形尘埃痕迹。椅子上挂着一套精心折叠的衣服;椅子下是两只寂寞的鞋子,还有一双丢弃的袜子。

【翻译津要】

(170) violence用象声词“砰地”来翻译。(171)pall:a feeling of gloom,意为:阴森的感觉,此句翻译时,pall同义词重复,前面译为:气味,后面译为:阴森森气氛。(172)是倒装句,译为汉语的存现句即可,as if they had just been removed是被动句,left upon是过去分词,译为汉语语义被动句(句型上为主动,语义上为被动)。(173)倒装句,译为存现句。

(173)The man himself lay in the bed.

(174)For a long while we just stood there, looking down at the profound and fleshless grin. (175)The body had apparently once lain in the attitude of an embrace, but now the long sleep that outlasts love, that conquers even the grimace of love, had cuckolded him. (176)What was left of him, rotted beneath what was left of the nightshirt, had become inextricable from the bed in which he lay; and upon him and upon the pillow beside him lay that even coating of the patient and biding dust.

【原文解读】

前一段的环境描写是一种环境烘托,此段是典型环境下的事态结果。(173)一句话旨在揭开前文留下的谜题(“was gone”,“went away”)。 (174)- (176)通过对床上尸体的细节描写,让读者产生恐怖的心情。(175)对臭味事件、砒霜事件揭秘。(176)爱情的结果:死亡。

【汉语译文】

床上躺着那个男人。

我们在那儿站了好一会儿,俯视着那枯瘦阴深,呲牙咧嘴的头颅;尸体躺在那儿,那躺姿明显是曾一度拥抱过,但如今的长眠比爱情更加长远,甚至战胜爱情的折磨,彻底让他驯服了。破烂的睡衣下,躯体腐烂后的遗骸与他躺着的床早已难分难解了。在他身上,在他身旁的枕头上,均匀地铺满了长年累月积下来的灰尘。

【翻译津要】

(174)中profound译为:阴森森;fleshless译为:枯瘦;grimace译为:折磨。

(177)Then we noticed that in the second pillow was the indentation of a head. (178)One of us lifted something from it, and leaning forward, that faint and invisible dust dry and acrid in the nostrils, (179)we saw a long strand of iron-gray hair.

【原文解读】

作者在结尾处把读者引向小说的高潮处,并突然结束(179)。让读者回味无穷。

【汉语译文】

后来,在旁边的枕头上,我们发现有人头压过的痕迹。有人从上面提起某种东西,凑近一看,一股淡淡的、无形的、干燥呛人的尘埃味扑鼻而来,原来是一绺长长的铁灰色头发。

【翻译津要】

(178) one of us中us前文中已经出现“我们”,此处遗而不译。(179)we saw略而不译,增添“原来是”。