爱思英语编者按:你会因为担心自己在别人面前出丑而变得害羞,进而拒绝与他人沟通吗?你曾在公众场合幻想自己消失?注意!你可能患上了社交恐惧症 (social phobia)!



Recognizing a SAD fact
社交恐惧症:不只是害羞

Before finally accepting a position as department head, Wu Ting turned down three promotion opportunities in the past 20 years just so she could avoid giving presentations at large gatherings. 
吴婷(音译)最终还是接受了部门经理这个职位,在过去的20年里她已拒绝了3次升职机会,而她这样做的目的只是为了避免在一大群人面前做报告。

Wu works for a State-owned corporation in Chengdu, capital of Sichuan province. Not long after joining the company, she was asked to convey to her colleagues the proceedings of a meeting that she had attended. 
吴婷在四川省会成都的一家国企工作。刚进单位不久,她就被要求向其他同事转述自己刚参加过的一次会议的进程。

The then green hand was left speechless, unable to recollect anything from the meeting. 
那时的吴婷还是个职场新人,她站在那儿说不出话来,也想不起会议上的任何事情。

That was the start of Wu's fear of speaking in front of more than five people.
从那时起,吴婷便开始害怕在超过5人的场合讲话。

The psychological problem that has bothered Wu for two decades is known as social anxiety disorder (SAD), or social phobia, and is characterized by a distracting nervousness in large gatherings and a powerful desire to avoid such situations. 
这种困扰吴婷20年之久的心理问题被称作为社交恐惧症,特征为在人群面前过度紧张,致使注意力无法集中,以及有强烈愿望希望逃避此类场合。

"I felt awkward and kept thinking I was not worthy," Wu told her doctor. 
吴婷告诉医生:“我感到很尴尬,总觉得自己不够优秀。”

As a result, every time the 38-year-old was given new, higher responsibilities, she would apply for a transfer to another department, so she could work as a junior staff member. http://www.24en.com爱思英语网
因此,每当38岁的吴婷被委以重任时,她都会申请调到其他部门,这样她就可以只做一名初级职员了。

The symptoms of SAD are often put down to shyness and hence the condition is still largely ignored in China, says Zhang Mingyuan, a doctor with Shanghai Mental Health Center. 
上海精神疾控中心医生张明远(音译)表示,社交恐惧症的症状常被看作是害羞,因而在中国仍在很大程度上被忽视。

Sufferers like Wu fear putting themselves through an evaluation by others, convinced that such assessment will be negative and embarrassing. 
像吴婷这样的患者害怕被他人评价并坚信这些评价会是消极难堪的。

In most cases, the dread is either caused by self-contempt from an embarrassing experience like Wu's, or negative comments from those with whom the victim has significant social interactions, such as family members, teachers or colleagues. 
大多数情况下,这种恐惧源自一次尴尬经历所带来的自卑(就像吴婷的遭遇一样);或是来自于患者的主要社会互动关系人群(如家人,老师或同事)的负面评价。http://www.24en.com爱思英语网

Zhang adds that even seeing the doctor is distressing to those suffering from social phobia. Constrained by awkward feelings, they are inclined to avoid being diagnosed. 
张明远补充说,对于患有社交障碍的人来说,甚至就连看医生都是件痛苦的事情。被一种尴尬的感觉束缚,他们会有意逃避诊断。

While there is no official figure of people suffering from SAD in China, an estimate given by Professor Zhang Xinkai, of the School of Medicine of Shanghai Jiaotong University, to China Newsweek puts the figure as "at least 30 million". 
中国目前还没有社交恐惧症患者的具体人数,《中国新闻周刊》报道称,上海交通大学医学院教授张新凯(音译)的所估计的人数为“最少3000万”。

"The increase in the number of patients hints at a large group of sufferers," he says, adding that this may also reflect people's increasing awareness of the disorder. http://www.24en.com爱思英语网
他表示:“就诊病人人数的增加反映出患者数量的巨大。”同时他也指出,这一现象还反映出了人们对这一疾病的认知有所提升。

He says that while being shy is normal, it is when the shyness interferes with an individual's daily communication with colleagues and others and becomes tortuous, that it becomes a disorder. 
他说,害羞很正常,但当害羞干扰到你和同事及他人的日常交流,且变得复杂,那它就成了一种疾病。

Patients coming to the center can be grouped into two age groups, 19 to 25, and 40 to 50, says Meng Jingya, a doctor at the mental health center of West China Hospital. http://www.24en.com爱思英语网
华西医院精神疾控中心的医生孟景亚(音译)说,中心的患者被分成两个年龄组,一组为19岁-25岁,一组为40岁-50岁。

Meng says young patients, many of whom are senior high school and university graduates, often come to see the doctor with their parents. Most find it hard to adapt to the changes from high school to university, or to life after graduation. 
孟景亚介绍说,许多年轻患者是高中或大学毕业生,通常都由父母陪同前来就诊。这些人中大多数觉得难以适应高中到大学,或是从校园到毕业后生活所发生的变化。http://www.24en.com爱思英语网

Parents fail to cultivate the social skills of their children during their school years, as parents, teachers and society in general focus mainly on their academic performance, Meng says. 
孟景亚说,通常家长,老师和社会主要关注孩子们的学业表现,因此家长没能在孩子读书时培养他们的社会技能。

In a few cases, there is a genetic link, with the afflicted youngsters' parents also showing symptoms of SAD.
个别病例则与基因遗传有关,年轻患者的父母们也表现出社交恐惧症的症状。

Those aged between 40 and 50 are often under heavy pressure from work, family and social relationships, and these may cause SAD. 
年龄介于40-50岁之间的患者通常都处于工作、家庭和社交的重压之下,这些都有可能导致社交恐惧症的产生。

The younger the age, the better the treatment's efficacy, Meng says. For most young patients, a 10-session group therapy over three months can produce marked results. http://www.24en.com爱思英语网
孟景亚表示,年龄越小,治疗效果也就越好。对于大多数年轻患者来说,在3个月内接受10次集体治疗法便可获得明显疗效。

In mild cases, just one or two sessions of group therapy is all that is required. 
而对于病情较轻者,只需要1或2次集体治疗就足够了。http://www.24en.com爱思英语网

Zhang Wei recalls how Wu Ting attended six therapy sessions and learnt relaxation techniques, besides rehearsing presentations. She finally succeeded in facing her supervisors to detail her accomplishments. 
张薇(音译)回忆到,吴婷前后共接受了6次治疗,她不仅学会了放松的技巧,还排练了报告内容。她终于可以坦然面对主管并详细列举自己的工作业绩了。

But for those suffering from severe symptoms, medication may be necessary, Meng says. They may also have to be put through further individual therapy, he adds.
但孟景亚表示,对于那些症状严重者,药物治疗是必不可少的。他还补充说,他们可能要进行进一步的单独治疗。