1. The name the Wars of Roses was referring to the battles between the great house of Lancaster, symbolized by the red rose, and that of York, symbolized by the white.
  玫瑰战争这个词是指两个家族间的战争,以红玫瑰为标志的蓝凯斯特家族和以白玫瑰为标志的约克家族。
  2. In 14, after Henry Ⅵ hand completely lost his reason, war broke out between the Yorkists and the Lancastrians. In 1461, the Duke of York’s son Edward, emerged the victor and was proclaimed as Edward Ⅳ.
  14年,当亨利六世再也没有理由(将国家交给摄政者管理时),战争在约克家族成员和蓝凯斯特家族成员中爆发了。1461年,约克公爵的儿子爱德华战胜成功成为爱德华四世。
  3. On August 22, 148, the last battle of the Wars of Roses was fought between Richard Ⅲ and Henry Tudor.
  148年8月22日,玫瑰战争的最后一次战役在理查德三世和亨利都铎之间展开。
  4. The reform began as a struggle for a divorce and end in freedom from the Papacy. Henry Ⅷ wanted to divorce Catherine of Aragon. But Pope Clement Ⅲ refused to annul his marriage to Catherine.
  改革以争取离婚开始,以脱离教皇而告终,亨利八世想与阿拉贡的公主凯瑟琳离婚,但教皇克莱蒙拒绝取消凯瑟琳和亨利八世之间的婚姻。
  5. Henry’s reform was to get rid of the English Church’s connection with the Pope, and make an independent Church of England.
  亨利改革的目的是拜托英国教会与教皇的联系,成立独立的英格兰教会。
  6. The laws (e.g. the Act of Succession of 134 and the Act of Supremacy of 13) made his reform possible stressed the power of the monarch and certainly strengthened Henry’s position.
  使改革可行的法律(如134年的《继承法案》和13年的《至尊法案》)强调了君主的权利并自然加强了亨利的地位。
  7. When Mary Tudor became Queen after Edward, she attempted to forcibly recovert England to Roman Catholicism. People call her “Blood Mary”。
  玛丽都铎再爱德华后当上女王,她试图强迫人们重新皈依罗马天主教。人们叫她“血腥玛丽”。
  8. Elizabeth’s reign was a time of confident English national and of great achievements in literature and other acts, in exploration and in battle.
  伊丽莎白统治时期,人民自信,民族主义高涨,在文学和其它艺术方面,在探险和对外作战方面都取得了巨大成功。
  9. Elizabeth’s religious reform was a compromise of views. She broke Mary’s ties with Rome and restored her father’s independent Church of England.
  伊丽莎白的宗教改革是各种观点的妥协,她中断玛丽与罗马的关系,恢复父王独立的英格兰教会。
  10. For nearly 30 years Elizabeth successfully played against each other the two great Catholic powers, France and Spain.
  将近30年来,伊丽莎白成功地令两大天主教强国法国和西班牙互相争斗,从而免于英国卷入任何主要的欧洲国的冲突。
  11. The destruction of Spanish Armada showed England’s superiority as a naval power. It enabled England to become a great trading and colonizing country in the years to come.
  西班牙无敌舰队的灭亡表明英国海上强国的优势,使英国在随后的几年能成为强大的贸易和殖民国。
  12. Renaissance was the transitional period between the Middle Ages and modern times, covering the years c1250-c1150. In England, the Renaissance was usually thought of as the beginning with the accession of the House of Tudor to the throne in 1485.
  文艺复兴处于中世纪向现代的过渡时期。覆盖1250-1150年。英国的文艺复兴通常被认为开始于1485年都铎家族的继位。
  13. English Renaissance achieved its first expression in the so-called Elizabethan drama. Its first exponents were Christopher Marlowe, Ben Jonson, and William Shakespeare.
  英国文艺复兴最好的表达方式是所谓的伊丽莎白戏剧。最好的代表任务是克里斯托夫。马洛;本。琼生和威廉。莎士比亚。