1. The name the Wars of Roses was referring to the battles between the great house of Lancaster, symbolized by the red rose, and that of York, symbolized by the white.
  2. In 14, after Henry Ⅵ hand completely lost his reason, war broke out between the Yorkists and the Lancastrians. In 1461, the Duke of York’s son Edward, emerged the victor and was proclaimed as Edward Ⅳ.
  3. On August 22, 148, the last battle of the Wars of Roses was fought between Richard Ⅲ and Henry Tudor.
  4. The reform began as a struggle for a divorce and end in freedom from the Papacy. Henry Ⅷ wanted to divorce Catherine of Aragon. But Pope Clement Ⅲ refused to annul his marriage to Catherine.
  5. Henry’s reform was to get rid of the English Church’s connection with the Pope, and make an independent Church of England.
  6. The laws (e.g. the Act of Succession of 134 and the Act of Supremacy of 13) made his reform possible stressed the power of the monarch and certainly strengthened Henry’s position.
  7. When Mary Tudor became Queen after Edward, she attempted to forcibly recovert England to Roman Catholicism. People call her “Blood Mary”。
  8. Elizabeth’s reign was a time of confident English national and of great achievements in literature and other acts, in exploration and in battle.
  9. Elizabeth’s religious reform was a compromise of views. She broke Mary’s ties with Rome and restored her father’s independent Church of England.
  10. For nearly 30 years Elizabeth successfully played against each other the two great Catholic powers, France and Spain.
  11. The destruction of Spanish Armada showed England’s superiority as a naval power. It enabled England to become a great trading and colonizing country in the years to come.
  12. Renaissance was the transitional period between the Middle Ages and modern times, covering the years c1250-c1150. In England, the Renaissance was usually thought of as the beginning with the accession of the House of Tudor to the throne in 1485.
  13. English Renaissance achieved its first expression in the so-called Elizabethan drama. Its first exponents were Christopher Marlowe, Ben Jonson, and William Shakespeare.