Justice and the law
  法律与司法机构
  There is no single legal system in the United Kingdom. A feature common to all systems of law in the United Kingdom is that there is no complete code. The sources of law include (1) statutes; (2) a large amount of "unwritten" or common law; (3) equity law; (4) European Community. Another common feature is the distinction made between criminal law and civil law.
  联合王国不实行完全统一的法律制度。联合王国所有法律制度的一个共同特点是没有以部完整的法典。法典来源包括:(1)成文法;(2)大量的"不成文法"或习惯法;(3)衡平法;(4)欧共体法。另一个共同的特点是刑法和民法之间的区别。

  I.Criminal Proceedings
  刑事诉讼程序
  1. In England and Wales, once the police have charged a person with a criminal offence, the crown Prosecution Service assumes control of the case reviews the evidence to decide whether to prosecute.
  在英格兰和威尔士,一旦警察指控某人犯有刑事罪,皇家检察总署就要接管此案,并独立地审核证据以决定是否起诉。
  2. In Britain all criminal trial are held in open count because the criminal law presumes the innocence of the accused until he has been proved guilty beyond reasonable doubt. The prosecution and the defense get equal treatment. No accused person has to answer the question of the police before trial. He is not compelled to give evidence in count. Every accused person has the right to employ a legal adviser to conduct his defense. If he can not afford to pay, he may be granted aid at public expense. In criminal trial by jury, the judge passes sentence, but the jury decided the issue of guilt or innocence. The jury composed of 12 or ordinary people. If the verdict of the jury can not be unanimous, it must be a majority.
  在英国,所有的刑事审判都在法院公开进行。因为刑法认为,在消除合理怀疑证明被告有罪之前,他是无辜的。原告与被告同样平等,审判时被告不必回答警察的问题,不许强迫被告提供证据。每位被告都有权雇佣律师为其辩护。如果他不能支付律师费,可以用公用费用提供帮助。在由陪审团进行的刑事审判中,法官判刑,但陪审团决定是否有罪。陪审团一般由12人组成。如果陪审团不能做出一致判决,也必须是多数决定。
  3.A verdict of " not guilt" means acquittal for the accused, who can never again be charged with that specific crime.
"无罪"裁决意味着被告无罪,并且永远不得再以此罪名对其指控。

  II. Criminal Courts
  刑事法庭
  1. Criminal Courts in England and Wales
  英格兰和威尔士的刑事法庭
  Magistrates' Courts which try summary offences and "either way" offences. A magistrates' court, which is open to the public and the media, usually consists of three unpaid "lay" magistrates-known as justices of the peace-who are advised on point of law and procedure by a legally qualified assistant. A Magistrates' court sits without a jury.
  治安(警事)法庭,负责审理判决犯罪,也审理"任意方式"罪行。治安法庭对公众和媒体公开,通常由三位无薪的"外行"地方官--地方治安官组成,由懂得法律知识的书记员和助手给他们提供法律规定和程序方面的建议。治安法庭审察时没有陪审团。
  Youth Court which try most cases involving people under 18.
  青少年法庭,负责审理18岁以下青年的大多数案件。