Day one
第一天

FINISHING its night flight from Jakarta, the aeroplane descends alongside the green Cyclops Mountains, which divide Papua’s shoreline from the island's interior. Lake Sentani reflects the warm light of the early morning through the plane’s starboard windows while the pilot keeps the ridge to our left. The airport of Papua’s capital, Jayapura, lies between the lake and the mountains. It was near this place in western New Guinea, what is today Indonesia’s easternmost region, that General Douglas MacArthur made his headquarters in 1944. From a mountaintop near what was then the Dutch colonial town of Hollandia he planned America’s recapture of the Philippines from Japanese occupation—making good on his vow, “I shall return”. This place is littered with the history of 20th-century colonial wars.

自雅加达开始的夜航终于结束了,飞机沿着从岛屿中部蔓延过来直达海岸线的独眼巨人山脉缓缓下降,机下是满眼的翠绿。此时山脊正好位于飞机的左侧,圣塔尼湖将清晨温暖的阳光通过飞机的右舷窗反射到机舱内。巴布亚省首府查亚普拉的机场坐落在山与湖之间。在新几内亚岛西部离这里不远的地方,也就是今日印度尼西亚最东部的地区,麦克阿瑟将军在1944年建立了他的司令部。从当时的荷兰殖民小镇霍兰迪亚附近的一个山头上,他制订了美国将菲律宾从日本占领者手中重新夺回的计划,实现他“我会回来”的誓言。这里随处可见20世纪殖民战争的历史遗迹。

The plane arrived nearly empty and the Papuan porters in the arrival hall are finding that custom is scarce. One of them wears a woollen hat with a white star on a red ground. It resembles the outlawed morning-star flag, a symbol for Papua’s fight for independence from Indonesia. Other porters sport dreadlocks and look like Rastafarians. At first sight a foreign visitor could be mistaken into thinking he had arrived somewhere in the Caribbean or in west Africa. In some ways the scene here is typical of Papua: poorly paid jobs like the porters’ are filled by native Papuans while skilled labour and commerce seem to belong exclusively to migrants from elsewhere in Indonesia. Javanese and other peoples from the great islands to the west seem to run the local economy, far beyond Jayapura’s airport. The sense of division is such that nearly all the locals use the term “Indonesians” to mean migrants from elsewhere, as if they did not share a single republic.

这架飞机上的乘客寥寥无几,机场大厅内的搬运工想揽点活都难。其中一个搬运工戴着一顶红底白星的呢料帽子,有点像非法的晨星旗图案。这种旗帜是巴布亚为摆脱印尼的统治进行独立斗争的象征。其他搬运工摆弄着长长的发绺,看起来就像拉斯特法里教徒一样。一个外来的游客乍一看可能会误以为到了加勒比海或西非的某个地方。从某个角度看这里是巴布亚的一个缩影,当地的巴布亚人主要从事像搬运工这类低报酬的工作,而技术工种和商业活动似乎专属于从印度尼西亚其它地方迁来的移民。从西部其它大岛迁移来的爪哇人和其他种族的人似乎控制了当地的经济命脉,而且远远不只是查亚普拉机场。裂痕无所不在,几乎所有当地人都用“印尼人”来称呼从印尼其他地方迁来的移民,就好像他们不是一个国家的人一样。

A friend meets me for the drive along Lake Sentani into Jayapura proper. Huts stand on wooden poles in the water. A woman moves her dugout canoe slowly along the shore. The car brings me to the house of another contact, an Indonesian who believes that I am on a business trip. As a foreign journalist in Papua—on an unsanctioned visit—it would be only too easy to get into trouble with the police and army. For the locals who co-operate with me, the risks are much greater. Stories of torture and secret killings abound. I try to keep a low profile and do everything I can to protect the identities of those who help me in my assignment.

一个朋友来接我,开车沿圣塔尼湖将我送到严格意义上的查亚普拉城中。车外可见座座棚屋在木桩的支撑下就建在水上。一个女人划着独木舟沿湖岸缓缓而行。轿车将我带到了另一个接头人的房子,这个接头的印尼人认为我的这次出行是在做某种生意。如果是以一个外国记者的身份出现在巴布亚,而且是在进行一次未经批准的采访,那就很容易落入军队和警察之手,给自己带来麻烦。而当地人要与这样一位记者合作,所冒的风险更大。酷刑和秘密杀害的故事路人皆知。我尽量不引人注目,尽可能地保护那些帮助我的人,不泄漏他们的身份。他们是按照我的吩咐为我做这些事情。

The western half of the island of New Guinea is the most resource-rich region of the Indonesian archipelago, yet most of its native population lives in abject poverty. West Papua, as the natives of Indonesian Papua prefer to call the whole of their homeland (in Jakarta “West Papua” and “Papua” are different), is home to huge reserves of gold and copper, mined mostly by Freeport-McMoRan, as well as natural gas, which is extracted mainly by BP. These contracts make the case of Papua very different from that of Timor-Leste, which was able to split from Indonesia in 2002 after a long and sometimes brutal occupation. Papua is so heavily endowed with mineral wealth that Indonesia seems unlikely ever to loosen its grip. For decades now, the government has encouraged migrants from Java and other densely populated islands to find a new home in Papua. The consequences of this policy can be seen easily in Jayapura. It has become a predominantly Indonesian port city. The Papuans here have been made a minority in their own land.

新几内亚岛的西半部是印度尼西亚群岛资源最丰富的地区,但大多数土著居民的生活一贫如洗。印尼属巴布亚土著人喜欢将他们的整个家园称之为西巴布亚,而在雅加达,“西巴布亚”和“巴布亚”的含义全然不同。西巴布亚黄金和铜的储量巨大,主要由美国自由港迈克墨伦铜金矿公司(Freeport-McMoRan)负责开采;此外天然气储量也极其丰富,主要是由英国石油公司负责开采。正是这些采矿合同使巴布亚的命运与东帝汶截然不同。在经历了长期的、有时甚至是野蛮的占领后,东帝汶在2002年摆脱了印尼的统治而获得独立。巴布亚得天独厚地拥有如此丰富的矿产资源,印度尼西亚似乎永远不会放弃这块肥肉。几十年来,政府一直鼓励从爪哇和其他人口稠密的岛屿移民到巴布亚去建立新的家园。在查亚普拉随处可见这一政策的后果。它已成为印尼一个主要的港口城市。这里的巴布亚人在自己的土地上已成少数民族。

I meet my first Papuan contact in an open-air restaurant near the harbour, far from the house where I stay. She turns out to be a shy woman who speaks good English, a student and a member of the radical National Committee of West Papua (KNPB), which has close links with guerrillas in the jungle. She refuses to have a meal in an Indonesian restaurant. We drink juice in a café and make plans to drive to a safe house outside Jayapura.

我在港口附近的露天餐厅里与我的第一个巴布亚接头人碰了面,这里远离我栖身的房屋。出乎我预料的是,这个接头人是一个能讲流利英语的腼腆女人,是一个学生和激进的西巴布亚全国委员会(KNPB)的成员,这个组织与丛林中的游击队关系密切。她拒绝在印尼人经营的餐厅吃饭。我们在一家咖啡厅里边喝果汁边讨论将我转移到查亚普拉外安全地点的计划。

The safe house turns out to be only a short drive away, in a valley not far from an army garrison. Our car brings us to a house surrounded by shacks with corrugated iron roofs, all inhabited by Papuans. Before I am allowed to alight, several young Papuans scout the area, to see that nobody is watching us. We remove our shoes outside the entrance. A stream of visitors pours into the house after us, and the pile of shoes outside gets bigger and bigger. Reckoning that it could attract unwelcome attention, a young man brings the shoes inside. Curtains are drawn to shield us from curious passers-by. But for the people inside, the room is almost empty. We sit on the floor, eight men and two women. The student translates into English as everyone is introduced. A man across the circle catches my eye immediately; he does not look like a Papuan at all. He has a Portuguese name and hails from Timor-Leste. He explains that he came to Papua almost two years ago to support the KNPB, but he demurs saying whether he is on an official mission or not. “This place is not very safe,” he offers.

这个安全地点并不很远,开车一会就到,而且位于一个山谷中,距一个政府军营地很近。汽车将我们载到一所房屋前停下,四周都是些波纹铁皮顶的窝棚,里面住的全都是巴布亚人。在我被允许下车之前,几个巴布亚年青人在四周进行了侦查,以确保没有人在监视我们。我们在房屋的入口处脱掉鞋子。在我们身后不断有人进入房间,门外的鞋越堆越高。为了不引起不受欢迎者的注意,一个小伙子将鞋都拎到屋内。为了避开路过之人好奇的目光,窗帘也被拉上。但对里面的人而言,室内几乎空空如也。我们席地而坐,共有八男两女。每个人都一一向我进行了介绍,那位女学生将他们的话翻译成英文。坐在我对面的一个男人立即引起了我的注意,他的相貌根本就不像一个巴布亚人。他有一个葡萄牙语的名字,来自东帝汶。他解释说,他到巴布亚已经近两年了,目的是支持KNPB,但他拒绝说明是否带有官方的使命。他指出:“这个地方不是很安全。”

He is not the only foreign national in the circle. There is a pastor from the neighbouring state of Papua New Guinea—the island’s eastern half—who identifies himself as a member of the guerrilla movement. He says the KNPB “and the fighters in the forests are working together very closely.” Moses Tabuni, a spokesman for the KNPB, explains that the guerrillas of the Free Papua Movement (OPM)—“the fighters in the forests”—have been fighting the Indonesians since the 1960s. The pastor from Papua New Guinea speaks of joining the two groups to form a Revolutionary Army of West Papua. “We have lost so many people that we want to organise our struggle in a new network.”

他不是这一圈人中唯一的外侨。这些人中还有一个来自邻国巴布亚新几内亚的牧师,他自我介绍说是个游击队员。巴布亚新几内亚拥有这个岛屿的东半部。他说,KNPB与“从林中的游击战士正在进行非常密切的合作。”摩西•塔布尼(Moses Tabuni)是KNPB的一个发言人,他解释说,自由巴布亚运动(OPM)的游击队员们(丛林战士)自上世纪60年代以来一直在与印尼人战斗。来自巴布亚新几内亚的牧师谈到了将这两个组织合并成西巴布亚革命军的问题。“我们已经牺牲了许多人,我们要组织一个新的斗争网络。”

Mr Tabuni wears a wristband emblazoned with the morning star. Its image became the official ensign of West Papua during a ten-month period from 1961 to 1962, when the region gained its independence from the Netherlands. That was when the island’s western half changed its name from Dutch New Guinea to West Papua—to distinguish it from Papua New Guinea to the east. After its short-lived independence West Papua was temporarily administered by the UN and then annexed by Indonesia in 1969. (Indonesia has designated its share of New Guinea with several names since then, but it has never allowed the whole region to be called “West Papua”.)

塔布尼手腕上带着一个饰有晨星图案的腕带。从1961年10月至1962年,该地区在荷兰人手中获得了独立,而这个图案就是当时的西巴布亚正式国旗。当时该岛西半部的名称从荷兰的新几内亚变成了西巴布亚,以区别于该岛东部的巴布亚新几内亚。在经历了短暂的独立后西巴布亚由联合国暂时进行管理,随后在1969年被印度尼西亚吞并。自那以后,印度尼西亚为其在几内亚岛上的这片土地设计了好几个名字,但从来不允许将这整个地区称为“西巴布亚”。

One of the KNPB’s young members says that they are only interested in organising demonstrations against the occupation. As such, all they want is the free exercise of their democratic rights, such as Indonesians elsewhere have been enjoying since 1998. “But the Indonesians call us troublemakers and terrorists. Should we not be allowed to gather and demonstrate in a democracy? It seems that democracy is all right for the Indonesians but not for us Papuans.”

KNPB的一个年轻成员说,过去他们只是想通过有组织的游行示威活动来反对占领。因此,他们的要求也只是像1998年以来印尼的其他地方那样,能够享有自由行使民主的权利。“但印尼人称我们为麻烦制造者和恐怖分子。在一个民主体制下难道我们就没有集会和游行示威的权力吗?看来他们的民主是给印尼人的,我们巴布亚人没有资格享有。”

“If the American mining giant Freeport-McMoRan wants to continue to extract our copper and gold, and if BP wants our natural gas, then they have to support our struggle,” says Mr Tabuni. He adds that he happy for me to quote him by name. On the way back to Jayapura the car is packed with men who took part in the secret meeting. They all seem to be concerned about my security. When we reach my destination, the home of a friend, I ask them to drop me. “No, not right in front of a police post,” Mr Tabuni pleads with a smile. They drop me farther down the road and I walk home like a tourist after a sightseeing tour.

塔布尼表示:“如果美国矿业巨头自由港迈克墨伦铜金矿公司希望继续开采我们的铜矿和金矿,如果英国石油公司想要开采我们的天然气,那么他们必须支持我们的斗争。”他补充道,如果我将他的名字公开出来他会感到很高兴。在返回查亚普拉的路上,车上挤满了参加这次秘密会议的男人。他们似乎都对我的安全很担心。当汽车到达了我的目的地,一个朋友家时,我请他们撂下我回去。塔布尼微笑着恳求道:“这里就在一个警察哨所前,让我们再送你一段吧。”他们把我又往前载了一段路程,然后我下车就像一个旅游者结束了观光一样走回住处。

Day two
第二天

FROM Jayapura I book a flight to Wamena. The town lies in the central highlands where the Papuan guerrillas keep their strongholds. The aeroplane passes over a landscape crazed with meandering rivers. Now I understand why there are no roads leading to Wamena. The place is isolated in the extreme. Even eggs have to be flown in. On the outskirt of town, a pick-up truck is waiting. I stop to buy presents for the villagers and rebels I intend to visit. My young companions—most of them are students and members of the National Committee of West Papua—ask for betel nuts and some snacks. They say we will need cigarettes too, for the army checkpoints on the way, and they wouldn’t mind having some for themselves either.

从查亚普拉我订了一张飞往瓦梅纳的机票。瓦梅纳镇坐落在中部高原,而巴布亚的游击队在中部高原建立了根据地。从飞机上向下望去,风景如画的大地上疯狂地扭曲着一条条的河流。现在我明白了为什么没有通往瓦梅纳的道路。这个地方与其它地区被完全隔离开。甚至鸡蛋也要通过飞机才能运来。在镇子的郊外,一辆皮卡正等着我们。我停下来买点礼物好送给我打算采访的村民和反叛武装人员。与我同行的年轻人大都是学生和西巴布亚民族委员会的成员,他们要我给他们买点槟榔和零食。他们说,还需要买些香烟以应付在路上遇到的政府军检查站,如果顺便给他们捎带上几盒他们也会笑纳。

We drive slowly through the scenic Baliem valley. The Dani, the local tribe, were not “discovered” by white men until 1938. Temperatures on the valley floor, with an altitude of approximately 1,600 metres, can get chilly. Our driver has to stop several times to pick up more passengers as well as a plastic tarpaulin, to protect passengers sitting in the bed from the occasional lashing of cold rain. After each stop the car leaves a mark on the road’s surface: a rectangle of red spatter, betel juice spewed out by the passengers.

我们坐在车里,沿着风景优美的巴列姆山谷缓缓前行。(他们介绍说)当地的部落叫“达尼”,直到1938年白种人才“发现”了这个部落。这个谷底的海拔也有约1600米,人会感到寒冷。皮卡的司机碰上搭车的乘客就得停下来,就这样先后又载上了好几位乘客以及一个塑料篷布,篷布是用来使坐在后车箱上的乘客免遭骤然而降的雨水浇淋。这种阵雨虽然只是偶尔遇到,但冰冷刺骨。汽车每停一站,在车后的路面上都会留下一个标记,这个有汁体飞溅的红色长方形印记是乘客们吐出的槟榔汁。

The farmsteads along the road are surrounded by fences that are capped with thatched roofs to protect their posts. Gardens on the steep hillsides are fenced in the same way. We pass several checkpoints without trouble. At one roadblock, however, I am asked to accompany a soldier to an office. The ambience is relaxed. I show my travel permit and my driver places two cigarette packs on the table. More discreetly, he lays a few banknotes—the equivalent of about ten dollars—on a chair next to the officer in charge. We are then allowed to proceed.

沿路的农家四周都有篱笆,篱笆上有茅草顶,作用是保护木桩。陡峭山坡上的果园也有同样形式的篱笆。我们顺利通过了几个检查站。然而在一个路障处,却要我随一个士兵到一个办公室去。房间内的气氛并不那么紧张。我掏出旅行许可证件,我的司机在桌上放了两盒烟。为稳妥起见,他又在负责盘查的军官座位旁的椅子上放上了几张钞票,大约相当于10美元。我们然后就被放行了。

After some hours we leave the road behind and continue on foot. We cross irrigation channels and fields planted with sweet potatoes. Coffee trees grow in the shade of a light forest. Wading in single file through a swamp we reach a fenced village. There is a guard at the gate. Although he has no shoes he tries to click his heels and salutes one of the men in our column, clearly a commander among the guerrillas. Inside the fence about two dozen villagers are standing under a big tree. As we approach them they start crying. For several minutes tears stream down their faces, some of which are marked with clay. My companions explain that this is a way of mourning the many Papuans killed during the struggle for independence. Smearing one’s face with clay is a sign of grief.

几个小时后,我们离开公路步行前进。我们越过道道灌渠和大片的红薯地。咖啡树就种在不那么浓密的树林里。我们排成一队跋涉过一块沼泽地后,就到达了一个四面围着篱笆的村子。村庄门口有一个哨兵在站岗。虽然他没有穿鞋,但仍是并拢脚跟向我们一行中的一人敬礼,这人显然是游击队的一个指挥官。村子的篱笆内有20多个村民正站在一棵大树下。当我们走近时,他们开始哭了起来。泪水哗哗地滚下他们的脸庞,能有好几分钟。其中一些村民的脸用粘土涂抹了。我的同伴们解释说,这是哀悼在争取独立的斗争中牺牲的众多巴布亚人的一种表达方式。用黏土涂抹自己的脸是表示悲伤。

Soon after, a squad of about 30 militiamen arrive. They carry wooden spears, bows and arrows, all fashioned without a single bit of metal. Two colonels, both barefoot, also form part of the detachment. One of them wears a long beard and carries a suitcase. He says he came from neighbouring Papua New Guinea where the guerrillas’ supreme commander, Mathias Wenda, has his headquarters. The villagers bring out a pig in my honour. While two men hold the poor animal’s feet, a third shoots an arrow made of bamboo right through the heart. I have never seen a faster and more effective way of slaughtering. While the meat is barbecued, the fighters and villagers sing and dance. Some of the women are dressed in grass skirts, and one of the men wears nothing more than a traditional penis quiver and a woollen cap.

不久,约有30人的一支民兵队伍到了。这些游击队员携带着木制的长矛和弓箭,没有一丁点铁器。两名带队的长官也都赤着脚站在队伍里面。其中一人蓄着长长的胡须,拎着一只手提箱。他介绍说,他来自邻近的巴布亚新几内亚,游击队最高指挥官马蒂亚斯•文达(Mathias Wenda)的总部也设在那里。为表示对我的敬意,村民们赶出一头猪。两名男子按住这可怜家伙的四肢,另有一人将一支竹箭直射入它的心脏。我之前从未见过这样一个快速而高效的屠宰方式。在猪肉被架起来烧烤的时候,游击队战士和村民们又是唱歌又是跳舞。一些妇女穿着草裙,而一名男子除了戴上传统的阴茎护套和羊毛帽外,几乎赤身裸体。

The students prepared a speech that one of the two colonels will read aloud for the rest of us. They want to give me a copy too, but first they need to put the official seal on it. With their first effort, they stamp the paper with the seal of the National Liberation Army of West Papua (TPN). But this rebel outfit, the armed wing of the Free Papua Movement (OPM), has been renamed the Revolutionary Army of West Papua (TRPB). No matter, the rebels quickly find the right rubber stamp and correct the error. The colonel from Papua New Guinea draws another document from his suitcase. It is a neatly done booklet about the rebel movement, including displays of all its insignia.

学生们准备了讲稿,其中一个带队的长官向其余的人大声朗读了这份讲稿。他们也想给我一份这篇讲稿,但他们首先要求长官在上面盖章。他们这是第一次在一份文件上盖上了西巴布亚民族解放军(TPN)的印章。但这个反叛组织是自由巴布亚运动(OPM)的武装派别,他们已经改称为西巴布亚革命军(TRPB)了。不过没关系,反叛者们很快会刻一个正确的图章并纠正这个错误。来自巴布亚新几内亚的长官从他的手提箱拿出另一份文件。这是一个制作的不错的小册子,内容是介绍反叛运动,其中还印有其所有的标志性图案。更多信息请访问:http://www.24en.com/

Villagers and militiamen take turns joining in a rallying cry: Papua merdeka! Because many hundreds of languages are spoken on the island of New Guinea, the rebels here converse in Bahasa Indonesia, the national tongue of their enemies, in which merdeka means freedom or independence. The militia pick up their weapons to perform some military drills. It is not easy to pivot briskly with a three-metre-long spear on one’s shoulder or to present arms with a bow and a loose bundle of arrows. The only modern weapon I see on this day is an air rifle used to shoot birds. The guerrillas also have a few automatic rifles, according to photos they show me.

村民和游击队员们轮番呼喊着战斗口号:巴布亚默迪卡!由于新几内亚岛上的语言多达数百种,这里的反叛者用印尼语进行交流,而这是他们敌人所用的语言。在印尼语中“默迪卡”的意思是自由或独立。游击队员们拿起武器进行了一些军事操练的表演。肩上扛着3米长的矛做出敏捷的转体动作或握着弓拿着松松垮垮的一袋箭摆出敬礼的姿势都很不容易。这一天我看到的唯一一件现代化武器是用来打鸟的气枪。但根据他们给我看的照片,游击队也有几杆自动步枪。

Once the pork is cooked, I am given the honour of distributing the meat. With the first few drops of a rainfall we retreat into a hut with a floor of matted straw. The men begin to tell stories of their struggle. I have been told that this can last hours, and it does. Just before dawn I find the chance to explain that we need to make our way back to the vehicle. Some of the fighters and villagers accompany us to the road. We say good-bye and one of the commanders asks me to tell the world the story of the Papuans’ struggle.

猪肉烤熟了,村民们给与我分配猪肉的荣誉。天上开始落下雨点,我们马上撤到一间地面铺着稻草席的棚屋内。男人们开始讲述他们的斗争故事。有人已经告诉过我这种故事一讲就是几个小时,现在确实如此。黎明前,我好不容易才找到机会解释说,我们需要回到车上赶路。一些游击队战士和村民陪同我们回到公路。我们挥手道别,其中一个指挥官嘱托我向全世界讲述巴布亚人斗争的故事。