企业会计准则
Accounting Criteria for Enterprises

第一章 总则
Chapter I General Provisions

第一条 为适应我国社会主义市场经济发展的需要,统一会计核算标准,保证会计信息质量,根据《中华人民共和国会计法》,制定本准则。
Article 1 In accordance with "The Accounting Law of the People's Republic of China," these Criteria are formulated to meet the needs of developing a socialist rnarket economy in our country, to unify the accounting standards and to ensure the quality of accounting information.

第二条 本准则适用于设在中华人民共和国境内的所有企业。
Article 2 These Criteria shall be applicable to all enterprises established within the territory of the People's Republic of China.

设在中华人民共和国境外的中国投资企业(以下简称境外企业)应当按照本准则向国内有关部门编报财务报告。
Chinese invested enterprises eslablished outside the territory of the People's Republic of China (hereinafier referred to as enterprises abroad) shall be required to prepare and disclose their financial reports to the relevant domestic departments in accordance with these Criteria.

第三条 制定企业会计制度应当遵循本准则。
Article 3 Accounting systems of enterprises shall be formulated in compliance with these Criteria.

第四条 会计核算应当以企业发生的各项经济业务为对象,记录和反映企业本身的各项生产经营活动。
Article 4 An enterprise shall accurately account for all its business transactions actually taken place, and record in reliable reports all the business activities of the enterprises itself.

第五条 会计核算应当以企业持续、正常的生产经营活动为前提。
Article 5 Accounting and financial reports shall be based on the presumption that the enterprise shall carry on its operation in a continuous and regular manner into the foreseeable future.

第六条 会计核算应当划分会计期间,分期结算帐目和编制会计报表。
Article 6 An enterprise shall account for its business activities and prepare its financial statements in distinct accounting periods.

会计期间分为年度、季度和月份。年度、季度和月份的起讫日期采用公历日期。
Accounting periods may be a fiscal year, a quarter, or a month, commencing on the first days thereof according to the Gregorian calendar.

第七条 会计核算以人民币为记帐本位币。
Article 7 The Renminbi shall be the bookkeeping base currency.

业务收支以外币为主的企业,也可以选定某种外币作为记帐本位币,但编制的会计报表应当折算为人民币反映。
A foreign currency may be adopted as the bookkeeping base currency for enterprises which conduct business transactions mainly in foreign currency. However, in preparing financial statements, business transactions in foreign currency are to be converted into Renminbi.

境外企业向国内有关部门编报会计报表,应当折算为人民币反映。
Enterprises abroad shall convert their foreign currency business transactions into Renminbi in preparing financial statements to the relevant domestic departments.

第八条 会计记帐采用借贷记帐法。
Article 8 The debit and credit double entry bookkeeping technique is to be adopted for recording all accounting transactions.

第九条 会计记录的文字应当使用中文,少数民族自治地区可以同时使用少数民族文字。
Article 9 Accounting records and financial reports shall be formulated in the Chinese language. Minority languages may be used concurrently with the Chinese language by enterprises in autonomous areas of minority nationalities.

外商投资企业和外国企业也可以同时使用某种外国文字。
And a foreign language may also be used concurrently by enterprises with foreign investment or foreign enterprises.

第二章 一般原则
Chapter II General Principles

第十条 会计核算应当以实际发生的经济业务为依据,如实反映财务状况和经营成果。
Article 10 The accounting records and financial reports shall be based on business transactions actually taken place, and truthfully reflect the financial position and operating results of an enterprise.

第十一条 会计信息应当符合国家宏观经济管理的要求,满足有关各方了解企业财务状况和经营成果的需要,满足企业加强内部经营管理的需要。
Article 11 Accounting information shall be designed to meet the requirements of national macro-economic control, to satisfy the needs of all concerned external users to understand an enterprise's financial position and operating results, as well as the needs of enterprises to strengthen internal management and administration.

第十二条 会计核算应当按照规定的会计处理方法进行,会计指标应当口径一致、相互可比。
Article 12 Accounting records and financial reports shall be prepared according to stipulated accounting methods, and accounting data shall be comparable and convenient to be analyzed.

第十三条 会计处理方法前后各期应当一致,不得随意变更。
Article 13 Accounting methods used shall be consistent from one period to the other and shall not be arbitrarily changed.

如确有必要变更,应当将变更的情况、变更的原因及其对企业财务状况和经营成果的影响,在财务报告中说明。
Where changes are absolutely necessary. the changes and reasons therefor and their impact on an enterprise's financial position and operating results, shall be indicated in the financial statements.

第十四条 会计核算应当及时进行。
Article 14 Accounting records and financial reports shall be prepared in a timely manner.

第十五条 会计记录和会计报表应当清晰明了,便于理解和利用。
Article 15 Accounting records and financial statements shall be prepared in a clear, concise manner to facilitate understanding, examination and use.

第十六条 会计核算应当以权责发生制为基础。
Article 16 The accrual basis of accounting shall be adopted in accounting records and financial reports.

第十七条 收入与其相关的成本、费用应当相互配比。
Article 17 Revenue shall be matched with related costs and expenses in accounting.

第十八条 会计核算应当遵循谨慎原则的要求,合理核算可以发生的损失和费用。
Article 18 Principle of prudence shall be followed, and possible loss and expense shall be reasonably determined.

第十九条 各项财产物资应当按取得时的实际成本计价。
Article 19 The values of all assets are to be recorded at historical costs at the time of acquisition.

物价变动时,除国家另有规定者外,不得调整其帐面价值。
The amount recorded in books of account shall not be adjusted even though a fluctuation in their value may occur, except otherwise stipulated by the State.

第二十条 会计核算应当合理划分收益性支出与资本性支出。
Article 20 A clear distinction shall be reasonably drawn between revenue expenditures and capital expenditures.

凡支出的效益仅与本会计年度相关的,应当作为收益性支出;凡支出的效益与几个会计年度相关的,应当作为资本性支出。
Expenditure shall be regarded as revenue expenditure where the benefit to the enterprise is only related to the current fiscal year; and as capital expenditure where the benefils to the enterprise last for several fiscal years.

第二十一条 财务报告应当全面反映企业的财务状况和经营成果。
Article 21 Financial statements shall reflect comprehensively the financial position and operating results of an enterprise.

对于重要的经济业务,应当单独反映。
Transactions relating to major economic activities are to be identified and separately reported in financial statements.

第三章 资产
Chapter III Assets

第二十二条 资产是企业拥有或者控制的能以货币计量的经济资源,包括各种财产、债权和其他权利。
Article 22 Assets are economic resources, which are measurable by money value, and which are owned or controlled by an enterprise, including all property, claims, and other rights.

第二十三条 资产分为流动资产、长期投资、固定资产、无形资产、递延资产和其他资产。
Article 23 Assets shall normally be divided into current assets, long-term investments, fixed assets, intangible assets, deferred assets and other assets.

第二十四条 流动资产是指可以在一年或者超过一年的一个营业周期内变现或者耗用的资产,包括现金及各种存款、短期投资、应收及预付款项、存货等。
Arliele 24 Current assets refer to those assets which will be realized or consumed within one year or within an operating cycle longer than a year, including cash, cash deposits, short-term investments, receivables, prepayments, and inventories, etc.

第二十五条 现金及各种存款按照实际收入和支出数记帐。
Article 25 Cash and all kinds of deposits shall he accounted for according to the actual amount of receipt and payment.

第二十六条 短期投资是指各种能够随时变现、持有时间不超过一年的有价证券以及不超过一年的其他投资。
Article 26 Short-term investments refer to various marketable securities, which can be realized at any time and will be held less than a year, as well as other investment with a life of no longer than a year.

有价证券应按取得时的实际成本记帐。
Marketable securities shall be accounted for according to historical cost as obtained.

当期的有价证券收益,以及有价证券转让所取得的收入与帐面成本的差额,计入当期损益。
Income reeeived or receivable from marketable securities in currenl period and the difference between the receipt obtained from securities sold and book cost shall be all accounted for as current profit or loss.

短期投资应当以帐面余额在会计报表中列示。
Short-term investments shall be itemized and shown in book balance in financial statement.

第二十七条 应收及预付款项包括:应收票据、应收帐款、其它应收款、预付货款、待摊费用等。
Article 27 Receivables and prepayments shall include: notes receivable, accounts receivable, other receivables, accounts prepaid and prepaid expenses, etc.

应收及预付款项应当按实际发生额记帐。
Receivables and prepayments shall be accounted for according to actual amount.

应收帐款可以计提坏帐准备金。
Provision for bad debts may be set up on accounts receivable.

坏帐准备金在会计报表中作为应收帐款的备抵项目列示。
The provision for bad debts shall be itemized and shown as a deduction item of accounts receivable in the financial statement.

各种应收及预付款项应当及时清算、催收,定期与对方对帐核实。
All receivables and prepayments shall be cleared and collected in time, and shall be checked with relaled parties periodically.

经确认无法收回的应收帐款,已提坏帐准备金的,应当冲销坏帐准备金;未提坏帐准备金的,应当作为坏帐损失,计入当期损益。
Any accounts receivable, proved and confirmed to be definitely uncollectible, shall be recognized as bed debts and written off against provision for bad debts or charged to current profit or loss as bad debts loss, if such provision is not set up.

待摊费用应当按受益期分摊,未摊销余额在会计报表中应当单独列示。
Prepaid expenses shall be amortized according to period benefiting, and the balance shall be itemized and shown separately in financial statement.

第二十八条 存货是指企业在生产经营过程中为销售或者耗用而储存地各种资产,包括商品、产成品、半成品、在产品以及各类材料、燃料、包装物、低值易耗品等。
Article 28 Inventories refer to merchandise, finished goods, semifinished goods, goods in process, and all kinds of materials, fuels, containers, low-value and perishable articles and so on that stocked for the purpose of sale or production and consumption during the production operational process.

各种存货应当按取得时的实际成本记帐。采用计划成本或者定额成本方法进行日常核算的,应当按期结转其成本差异,将计划成本或者定额成本调整为实际成本。
All inventories shall be accounted for at historical cost as obtained. Those enterprises keep books at planned cost or norm cost in daily accounting shall account the cost variances and adjust planned cost or norm cost into historical cost periodically.

各种存货发出时,企业可以根据实际情况,选择使用先进先出法、加权平均法、移动平均法、个别计价法等方法确定其实际成本。
When delivering inventories, enterprises nay account for their actual cost under the following methods: first-in first-out, weighted average, moving average, specific identification, last-in first-out, etc.

各种存货应当定期进行清查盘点。对于发生的盘盈、盘亏以及过时、变质毁损等需要报废的,应当及时进行处理,计入当期损益。
All inventories shall be taken stock periodically. Any overage, shortage or out-of-date, deterioration and damage thai need to be scrapped shall be disposed within the year and accounted into current profit or loss.

各种存货在会计报表中应当以实际成本列示。
All the inventories shall be disclosed at historical cost financial statement.

第二十九条 长期投资是指不准备在一年内变现的投资,包括股票投资、债券投资和其他投资。
Article 29 Long-term investment refers to the investment not intended to be realized within a year, including shares investment, bonds investment and other investments.

股票投资和其他投资应当根据不同情况,分别采用成本法或权益法核算。
Shares investment and other investments shall be accounted for by cost method or equity method respectively, in accordance with different situation.

债券投资应当按实际支付的款项记帐。
Bonds investment shall be accounted for according to actual amount paid.

实际支付的款项中包括应计利息的,应当将这部分利息单独记帐。
The interest accrued contained in the actually paid amount shall be accounted for separately.

溢价或者折价购入的债券,其实际支付的价款与债券面值的差额,应当在债券到期前分期摊销。
Where bonds are acquired at a premium or discount, the difference between the cost and the face value of the bonds shall be amortized over the periods prior to maturity of the bonds.

债券投资存续期内的应计利息,以及出售时收回的本息与债券帐面成本及尚未收回应计利息的差额,应当计入当期损益。
Interest accrued during the period of bonds investment and the difference between the amount of principal and interest received on bonds sold and their book cost and interest accrued but not yet received shall be accounted for as current profit and loss.

长期投资应当在会计报表中分项列示。
Long-term investment shall be itemized and shown separately in financial statements.

一年内到期的长期投资,应当在流动资产下单列项目反映。
Long-term investment matured within a year shall be itemized in the financial statements separately under the caption of current assets.

第三十条 固定资产是指使用年限在一年以上,单位价值在规定标准以上,并在使用过程中保持原来物质形态的资产,包括房屋及建筑物、机器设备、运输设备、工具器具等。
Article 30 Fixed assets refer to the assets whose service life is over one year, unit value is above the prescribed standards and where original physical form remains during the process of utilization, including buildings and structures, machinery and equipment, transportation equipment, tools and implements, etc.

固定资产应当按取得时的实际成本记帐。在固定资产尚未交付使用或者已投入使用但尚未办理竣工决算之前发生的固定资产的借款利息和有关费用,以及外币借款的汇兑差额,应当计入固定资产价值;在此之后发生的借款利息和有关费用及外币借款的汇兑差额,应当计入当期损益。
Fixed assets shall be accounted for at historical cost as obtained. Interest of loan and other related expenses for acquiring fixed assets, and the exchange difference from conversion of foreign currency loan, if incurred before the assets having been put into operation or after been put into operation but before the final account for completed project is made, shall be accounted as fixed assets value; if incurred after that, shall be accounted into current profit or loss.

接受捐赠的固定资产应按照同类资产的市场价格或者有关凭据确定固定资产价值。接受捐赠固定资产时发生的各项费用,应当计入固定资产价值。
Fixed assets received as donations shall be accounted through evaluation with reference to the market price of similar assets or with relevant evidences. Expenses incurred on receiving those donated fixed assets, shall be accounted for as the fixed assets value.

融资租入的固定资产应当比照自有固定资产核算,并在会计报表附注中说明。
Fixed assets financed by leasing shall be accounted mutatis mutandis to selfowned fixed assets and shall be indicated in notes to the financial statements.

固定资产折旧应当根据固定资产原值、预计净残值、预计使用年限或预计工作量,采用年限平均法或者工作量(或产量)法计算。
Depreciation on the fixed assets shall be accounted on the basis of the original cost, estimated residual value, estimated useful life and working capacity, according to the straight line method or the working capacity (or output) method.

如符合有关规定,也可采用加速折旧法。
If conforming to relevant regulations, accelerated depreciation method may be adopted.

固定资产的原值、累计折旧和净值,应当在会计报表中分别列示。
The original value, accumulated depreciation and net value of fixed assets shall be itemized and shown separately in financial statement.

为购建固定资产或者对固定资产进行更新改造发生的实际支出,应当在会计报表中单独列示。
The actual expenditures incurred for the purpose of acquiring or updating and conducting technical reforming on the fixed assets, shall be itemized and shown separately in financial statement.

固定资产应当定期进行清查盘点,对于固定资产盘盈、盘亏的净值以及报废清理所发生的净损失应当计入当期损益。
The fixed assets shall be taken inventory periodically. The net profit or loss incurred in discard and disposal, and also overage, shortage of fixed assets shall be accounted into current profit and loss.

第三十一条 无形资产是指企业长期使用而没有实物形态的资产,包括专利权、非专利技术、商标权、著作权、土地使用权、商誉等。
Article 31 Intangible assets refer to assets that are used by an enterprise for a long term without material state, including patents, non-patented technology, trademark, copyrights, right to use land sites, and goodwill, etc.

购入的无形资产,应当按实际成本记帐;接受投资取得的无形资产,应当按照评估确认或者或合同约定的价格记帐;
Intangible assets purchased shall be accounted for at actual cost. Intangible assets received from investors shall be accounted for at the assessed value recognized or the amount specified in the contract.

自行开发的无形资产,应当按开发过程中实际发生的支出数记帐。
Self-developed intangible assets shall be accounted at actual cost in the development process.

各种无形资产应当在受益期内分期平均摊销,未摊销余额在会计报表中列示。
All intangible assets shall be averagely amortized over the periods benefited from such expenditures and the unamortized balance shall be itemized and shown in financial statements.

第三十二条 递延资产是指不能全部计入当年损益,应当在以后年度内分期摊销的各项费用,包括开办费、租入固定资产的改良支出等。
Article 32 Deferred assets refer to all the expenses that cannot be accounted into current profit or loss totally but should be periodically amortized in future years, including starting expenses, expenditures incurred in major repair and improvement of the rented fixed assets, etc.

企业在筹建期内实际发生的各项费用,除应计入有关财产物资价值者外,应当作为开办费入帐。
The expenses incurred to an enterprise during its preparation period shall be accounted for as starting expenses except those that shall be accounted into related property or material value.

开办费应当在企业开始生产经营以后的一定年限内分期平均摊销。
The starting expenses shall be averagely amortized in a certain period of years after the operation starts.

租入固定资产改良支出应当在租赁期内平均摊销。
Expenditures incurred on major repair and improvement of the rented fixed assets shall be averagely amortized during the period of leasing.

各种递延资产的未摊销余额应当在会计报表中列示。
All deferred assets shall be shown separately in accounting statements by its balance not yet amortized.

第三十三条 其他资产是指除以上各项目以外的资产。
Article 33 Other assets refer to the assets except all items mentioned above.

第四章 负债
Chapter IV Liabilities

第三十四条 负债是企业所承担的能以货币计量、需以资产或劳务偿付的债务。
Article 34 Liabilities are debts borne by an enterprise, measurable by money value, which is to be paid to a creditor in assets, or services.

第三十五条 负债分为流动负债和长期负债。
Article 35 Liabilities are generally classified into current liabilities and long-term liabilities.

第三十六条 流动负债是指将在一年或者超过一年的一个营业周期内偿还的债务,包括短期借款、应付票据、应付帐款、预收货款、应付工资、应交税金、应付利润、其他应付款、预提费用等。
Article 36 Current liabilities refer to the debts which will be paid off within one year or an operating cycle longer than a year, including short-term loans payable, notes payable, accounts payable, advances from customers, accrued payroll, taxes payable, profits payable, other payables, provision for expenses, etc.

各项流动负债应当按实际发生数额记帐。负债已经发生而数额需要预计确定的,应当合理预计,待实际数额确定后,进行调整。
All current liabilities shall be accounted for at actual amount incurred. Liabilities incurred but the amount to be estimated shall be accounted for dt a reasonable estimate, and then adjusted after the actual amount is given.

流动负债的余额应当在会计报表中分项列示。
Balance of current liabilities shall be itemized and shown in financial statements.

第三十七条 长期负债是指偿还期在一年或者超过一年的一个营业周期以上的债务,包括长期借款、应付债券,长期应付款项等。
Article 37 Long-term liabilities refer to the debts which will be redeemed after one year or an operating cycle longer than a year, including long-term loans payable, bonds payable, long-term accounts payable, etc.

长期借款包括向金融机构借款和向其他单位借款。
Long-term loans payable include the loans borrowed from financial institutions and other units.

长期借款应当分别借款性质按实际发生的数额记帐。
They shall be accounted independently according to the different characters of the loans and at the amount actually incurred.

发行债券时,应当按债券的面值记帐。债券溢价或折价发行时,实收价款与面值的差额应当单独核算,在债券到期前分期冲减或者增加各期的利息支出。
Bonds shall be accounted for at par value. When bonds are issued in premium or discount, the difference between the amount actually obtained and the par value shall be accounted independently, and be written off periodically or increasing the interest expenses of every period prior to the maturity of bonds.

长期应付款项包括应付引进设备款、融资租入固定资产应付款等。
Long-term accounts payable include accounts payable for importing equipments, accounts payable for fixed assets financed by leasing.

长期应付款项应当按实际发生数额记帐。
Long-term accounts payable shall be accounted at actual amounts.

长期负债应当按长期借款、应付债券、长期应付款项在会计报表中分项列示。
Long term liabilities shall be itemized and shown as long-term loans, bonds payable, long-term accounts payable in financial statements.

将于一年内到期偿还的长期负债,应当在流动负债下单列项目反映。
Long-term liabilities to be matured and payable within one year shall be shown as a separate item under the caption of current liabilities.

第五章 所有者权益
Chapter V Owners' Equity

第三十八条 所有者权益是企业投资人对企业净资产的所有权,包括企业投资人对企业的投入资本以及形成的资本公积金、盈余公积金和未分配利润等。
Article 38 Owners' equity refers to the ownership of the investors with respect to the net assets of an enterprise, including capital invested in by investors, capital reserve, surplus reserve, and undistributed profit, etc.

第三十九条 投入资本是投资者实际投入企业经营活动的各种财产物资。
Article 39 Invested capital is the capital fund actually invested in the enterprise by its investors, whether it be in form of cash, physical goods or other assets for the operation of the enterprise.

投入资本应当按实际投资数额入帐。
Invested capital shall be accounted for at the amount actually invested.

股份制企业发行股票,应当按股票面值作为股本入帐。
Amount of shares issued by a share-holding enterprise shall be accounted for as equity at the face value of the shares issued.

国家拨给企业的专项拨款,除另有规定者外,应当作为国家投资入帐。
Special appropriation allocated by the government to an enterprise shall be accounted for as government investment unless otherwise stipulated.

第四十条 资本公积金包括股本溢价、法定财产重估增值、接受损赠的资产价值等。
Article 40 Capital reserve includes premium on capital stock, legal increment of property value through revaluation and value of donated assets accepted, etc.

第四十一条 盈余公积金是指按照国家有关规定从利润中提取的公积金。
Article 41 Surplus reserve refers to the reserve fund set up from profit according to relevant State regulations.

盈余公积金应当按实际提取数记帐。
Surplus reserve shall be accounted for at the amount actually set up.

第四十二条 未分配利润是企业留于以后年度分配的利润或待分配利润。
Article 42 Undistributed profit refers to the profit reserved for future distribution or to be distributed.

第四十三条 投入资本、资本公积金、盈余公积金和未分配利润的各个项目,应当在会计报表中分项列示。
Article 43 Invested capital, capital reserve, surplus reserve and undistributed profit shall be itemized and shown in financial statements.

如有未弥补亏损,应作为所有者权益的减项反映。
Deficit not yet made up, if any, shall be shown as a deduction item of owners' equity.

第六章 收入
Chapter VI Revenue

第四十四条 收入是企业在销售商品或者提供劳务等经营业务中实现的营业收入。包括基本业务收入和其他业务收入。
Article 44 Revenue refers to the financial inflows to an enterprise as a result of the sale of goods and services, and other business activities of the enterprise, including basic operating revenue and other operating revenue.

第四十五条 企业应当合理确认营业收入的实现,并将已实现的收入按时入帐。
Article 45 Enterprises shall rationally recognize revenue and account for the revenue on time.

企业应当在发出商品、提供劳务,同时收讫价款或者取得索取价款的凭据时,确认营业收入。
Enterprises shall recognize revenue when merchandise shipped, service provided as well as money collected or rights to collect money obtained.

长期工程(包括劳务)合同,一般应当根据完成进度法或者完成合同法合理确认营业收入。
Revenue of long-term project contract (including labour service) shall be reasonably recognized, in general, according to the completed progress method or the completed contract method.

第四十六条 销售退回、销售折让和销售折扣,应作为营业收入的抵减项目记帐。
Article 46 Return of sales, sales allowances and sales discount shall be accounted for as deduction item of operating revenue.

第七章 费用
Chapter VII Expenses

第四十七条 费用是企业在生产经营过程中发生的各项耗费。
Article 47 Expenses refer to the outlays incurred by an enterprise in the course of production and operation.

第四十八条 直接为生产商品和提供劳务等发生的直接人工、直接材料、商品进价和其他直接费用,直接计入生产经营成本;
Article 48 Expenses directly incurred by an enterprise in production and provision of service, including direct labour, direct materials, purchase price of commodities and other direct expenses shall be charged directly into the cost of production or operation;

企业为生产商品和提供劳务而发生的各项间接费用,应当按一定标准分配计入生产经营成本。
indirect expenses incurred in production and provision of service by an enterprise is to be allocated into the cost of production and operation, according to certain standards of allocation.

第四十九条 企业行政管理部门为组织和管理生产经营活动而发生的管理费用和财务费用,为销售和提供劳务而发生进货费用、销售费用,应当作为期间费用,直接计入当期损益。
Article 49 Administrative and financial expenses incurred by enterprise's administrative sectors for organizing and managing production and operation, purchase expenses on commodities purchased, and sales expenses for selling commodities and providing service, shall be directly accounted as periodic expense in the current profit and loss.

第五十条 本期支付应由本期和以后各期负担的费用,应当按一定标准分配计入本期和以后各期。本期尚未支付但应由本期负担的费用,应当预提计入本期。
Article 50 The expenses paid in current period but attributable to the current and future periods shall be distributed and accounted into current and future periods. The expenses attributable to the current period but not yet paid in current period shall be recognized as accrued expenses of the current period.

第五十一条 成本计算一般应当按月进行。
Article 51 Enterprises shall generally calculate products cost each month.

企业可以根据生产经营特点、生产经营组织类型和成本管理的要求自行确定成本计算方法。但一经确定,不得随意变动。
Costing methods may be decided by the enterprise itself according to the characteristics of its production and operation, type of production management and requirements of cost management. Once it is decided, no change shall be made arbitrarily.

第五十二条 企业应当按实际发生额核算费用和成本。
Article 52 Enterprises shall calculate expenses and costs at the actual amounts incurred.

采用定额成本或者计划成本方法的,应当合理计算成本差异,月终编制会计报表时,调整为实际成本。
Those adopting the norm cost method, or planned cost method in accounting for daily calculation shall reasonably calculate the cost variances, and adjust them into historical cost at the end of the month while preparing financial statements.

第五十三条 企业应当正确、及时地将已销售商品和提供劳务的成本作为营业成本,连同期间费用,结转当期损益。
Article 53 Enterprises shall convert the cost of commodities sold and service provided into operating cost accurately and timely, then account current profit and loss together with periodic expenses.

第八章 利润
Chapter VIII Profit

第五十四条 利润是企业在一定期间的经营成果,包括营业利润、投资净收益和营业外收支净额。
Article 54 Profit is the operating results of an enterprise in an accounting period, including operating profit, net investment profit and net non-operating income.

营业利润为营业收入减去营业成本、期间费用和各种流转税及附加税费后的余额。
Operating profit is the balance of operating revenue after deducting operating cost, periodic expenses and all turnover taxes, surtax and fees.

投资净收益是企业对外投资收入减去投资损失后的余额。
Net investment profit is the balance of income on external investment after deducting investment loss.

营业外收支净额是指与企业生产经营没有直接关系的各种营业外收入减营业外支出后的余额。
Net non-operating income is the balance of non-operating income which have no direct relevance with the production and operation of an enterprise after deducting non-operating expenses.

第五十五条 企业发生亏损,应当按规定的程序弥补。
Article 55 Loss incurred by an enterprise shall be made up according to the stipulated procedure.

第五十六条 利润的构成和利润分配的各个项目,应当在会计报表中分项列示。
Article 56 Items that constitute the profits and the distribution of profits shall be itemized and shown separately in the financial statements.

仅有利润分配方案,而未最后决定的,应当将分配方案在会计报表附注中说明。
A distribution of profit plan which is not yet approved is to be identified in notes to the financial statements.

第九章 财务报告
Chapter IX Financial Reports

第五十七条 财务报告是反映企业财务状况和经营成果的书面文件,包括资产负债表、损益表、财务状况变动表(或者现金流量表)、附表及会计报表附注和财务状况说明书。
Article 57 Financial reports are the written documents summarizing and reflecting the financial position and operating results of an enterprise, including a balance sheet, an income statement, a statement of changes in financial position (or a cash flow statement) together with supporting schedules, notes to the financial statements, and explanatory statements on financial condition.

第五十八条 资产负债表是反映企业在某一特定日期财务状况的报表。
Article 58 A balance sheet is an accounting statement that reflects the financial position of an enterprise at a specific date.

资产负债表的项目,应当按资产,负债和所有者权益的类别,分项列示。
Items of the balance sheet should be arranged according to the categories of assets, liabilities and owners' equity, and shall be shown item by item.

第五十九条 损益表是反映企业在一定期间的经营成果及其分配情况的报表。
Article 59 An income statement is an accounting statement that reflects the operating results of an enterprise within an accounting period, as well as their distribution.

损益表的项目,应当按利润的构成和利润分配各项目分项列示。
Items of the income statement should be arranged according to the formation and distribution of profit, and shall be shown item by item.

利润分配部分各个项目也可以另行编制利润分配表。
Items of the profit distribution part of the income statement may be shown separately in a statement of profit distribution.

第六十条 财务状况变动表是综合反映一定会计期间内营运资金来源和运用及其增减变动情况的报表。
Article 60 A statement of changes in financial position is an accounting statement that reflects comprehensively the sources and application of working capital and its changes during an accounting period.

财务状况变动表的项目分为营运资金来源和营运资金运用。
Items of the statement of changes in financial position are divided into sources of working capital and application of working capital.

营运资金来源与营运资金运用的差额为营运资金增加(或减少)净额。
The difference between the total sources and total applications is the net increase (or decrease) of the working capital.

营运资金来源分为利润来源和其他来源,并分项列示。营运资金运用分为利润分配和其他用途,并分项列示。
Sources of working capital are subdivided into profit sources and other sources; applications of working capital are also subdivided into profit distribution and other applications, all shall be shown item by item.

企业也可以编制现金流量表,反映财务状况的变动情况。
An enterprise may also prepare a cash flow statement to reflect the changes in its financial position.

现金流量表是反映企业一定会计期间现金收支情况的会计报表。
A cash flow statement is an accounting statement that reflects the condition of cash receipts and cash disbursements of an enterprise during a cerlain accounting period.

第六十一条 会计报表可以根据需要,采用前后期对比方式编列。
Article 61 Financial statements may, if necessary, be arranged in a way that the previous accounting period can be compared to the subsequent periods.

采取前后期对比方式编列的,上期的项目分类和内容与本期不一致的,应当将上期数按本期项目和内容,调整有关数字。
When so arranged, if the classification and contents of statement items of the previous accounting period are different from that of the current period, such items shall be adjusted in conformity with that of the current period.

第六十二条 会计报表应当根据登记完整、核对无误的帐簿记录和其它有关资料编制,做到数字真实、计算准确、内容完整、报送及时。
Article 62 Financial statements shall be prepared from the records of account books, completely recorded and correctly checked and other relevant information. It is required that they must be true and correct in figures, complete in contents and issue in time.

第六十三条 企业对外投资如占被投资企业资本总额半数以上,或者实质上拥有被投资企业控制权的,应当编制合并会计报表。
Article 63 Consolidated financial statements shall be prepared by the enterprise, where it owns 50% or more of the total capital of the enterprise it has invested or otherwise owns the right of control over the invested enterprise.

特殊行业的企业不宜合并的,可不予合并,但应当将其会计报表一并报送。
Financial statements of an invested enterprise engaged in special line of business not suitable for consolidation, may not be consolidated, but they shall be submitted together.

第六十四条 会计报表附注是为帮助理解会计报表的内容而对报表的有关项目等所作的解释,其内容主要包括:
Article 64 Notes to the financial statements are explanatory to related items in the financial statement of the enterprise concerned so as to facilitate understanding of the contents of the statements, the contents of which shall mainly include:

所采用的主要会计处理方法;
major accounting methods adopted;

会计处理方法的变更情况、变更原因以及对财务状况和经营成果的影响;
changes in accounting methods, the reasons for the changes, and their impact on the financial position and operating results of the enterprise;

非经常性项目的说明;
description of unusual items;

会计报表中有关重要项目的明细资料;
detailed information relating to major items listed in the financial statements;

其他有助于理解和分析报表需要说明的事项。
and any other explanations necessary to provide users with a clear view and understanding of the financial statements.

第十章 附则
Chapter X Supplementary Provisions

第六十五条 本准则由财政部负责解释。
Article 65 The Ministry of Finance shall be responsible for the interpretation of these Criteria.

第六十六条 本准则自一九九三年七月一日起施行。
Article 66 These Criteria shall be effective as of July 1,1993.