Terror Laws Cut Resettlement of Refugees

反恐法案削减难民安置数量

  The number of refugees admitted to the United States fell 23 percent this year because of provisions in two antiterrorism laws that have sharply reduced the number of resettled refugees, State Department officials said Wednesday.

  美国国务院官员星期三透露,两部反恐法案的条款明显减少了难民安置数量,这使得今年进入美国的难民下降了23%.

  The laws, the USA Patriot Act and the Real ID Act, deny entry to anyone who belongs to or has provided material support to armed rebel groups, even if that support was coerced and even if the armed groups fought alongside American troops or opposed authoritarian governments criticized by the Bush administration.

  《美国爱国法》和《真实身份法案》两部法案拒绝任何属于或者为武装叛乱组织提供物资的人,甚至出于被迫无奈提供物资或是与美国军队共同作战或反抗被布什政府指称的独裁政府的武装组织的人员进入美国境内。

  The provisions have derailed the resettlement of thousands of refugees fleeing the authoritarian government of Myanmar, formerly known as Burma; hundreds of refugees from Vietnam and Laos who fought alongside American troops in the Vietnam War; and dozens of Cubans who supported armed groups opposed to Fidel Castro in the 60's, according to the State Department and the United Nations refugee agency.

  根据国务院和联合国难民署消息,条例致使成千上万的逃离缅甸独裁统治的难民,成百的曾与美国军队在越战中共同战斗的越南和老挝难民,还有几十位在60年代支持反对菲德尔·卡斯特罗的武装组织的古巴人无法以难民身份前往美国。

  Many of the refugees were barred from the United States because, under the new laws, they are deemed supporters of terrorist groups, even though the organizations that they support do not appear on the State Department list of designated terrorist groups.

  许多难民被禁止进入美国,因为根据法律,他们被认为是恐怖组织的支持者,尽管他们支持的组织并没有在美国国务院认定的恐怖组织名单上。

  The statutes have broadened the definition of terrorist groups to include any group of two or more people who take up arms against a state, even if the group supports the aims of American foreign policy.

  法令扩大了恐怖组织的定义,将其延伸到任何包含2个或2个以上的人组成的武装反对政府的任何组织,即便这一组织支持美国的国家外交政策。

  A result, State Department officials say, is that administration officials will resettle 41,200 of the 54,000 refugees whom they had expected to admit by the end of the current fiscal year, which ends on Sept. 30. That figure is the lowest since refugee admissions plunged for nearly two years after the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks.

  国务院官员说,行政部门的官员结果只能将54000名难民中的41200人妥善安置。这些人原本希望能在9月30日结束的本财年末被美国政府接纳。这一数字是2001年“9·11事件”后2年多来难民接受数量持续下降的最低点。

  The State Department can grant waivers for specific populations that have supported armed groups, if they pose no threat to the United States. In May and August, the department issued waivers for Burmese refugees who have supported the Karen National Union, a group that opposes the government in Myanmar.

  国务院可以豁免一些曾经支持过武装组织的特定人群,前提是他们不再成为美国的威胁。在5月和8月,国务院豁免了那些曾经支持过克伦族联盟的缅甸难民。这一组织一直反对缅甸政府的统治。

  But the laws do not allow waivers for refugees who were combatants, received military training from groups deemed to be terrorist organizations or were members of such groups. State Department officials say a change in the law is required to address those populations. In recent weeks, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice has met with lawmakers in the House and Senate to discuss such changes.

  但是法律规定不会豁免那些作为难民的武装分子,这些人接受过被认定为恐怖组织的军事训练或者本身是这些组织的成员。国务院官员说确认这些人的难民身份需要修改法律条文。近几周以来,美国国务卿康多莉扎·赖斯与参众两院的立法者会面商谈如何改变现行的法律。

  Ellen R. Sauerbrey, an assistant secretary of state, told senators on Wednesday that the antiterrorism provisions had prevented the United States from resettling 9,500 Burmese this fiscal year. Of that group, 1,500 are expected to enter by Sept. 30 under issued waivers.

  助理国务卿艾伦·R·索尔布雷星期三告诉参议员说,反恐条例阻止了美国政府在这个财年安置9500名缅甸难民的机会。其中,根据已经签发的豁免令,预计有1500人在9月30日前进入美国。

  “We had anticipated bringing the majority, if not all of those, to the United States,” Ms. Sauerbrey said at a hearing of the Immigration Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Committee.

  “即便不能完全接收的话,我们预计可以接受其中大部分难民,”索尔布雷在参议员司法委员会移民小组委员会的听证会上说。

  She said the limited waivers meant that the resettlement of many refugees had been indefinitely delayed. In addition to the Burmese, Ms. Sauerbrey pointed to the Cubans and Vietnamese Montagnards.

  她说,限制豁免意味着许多难民的安置权将会被无限期推迟。除了缅甸人,她指出还有古巴人和越南的山地居民。

  “We are eagerly looking forward to expanding resettlement,” she said, “to the degree that we can resolve some of these difficulties.”

  “我们非常期盼能够扩大难民安置的范围,”她说,“达到可以在一定程度上缓解困境的程度。”

  Refugee advocacy groups, including Human Rights First and Human Rights Watch, and conservative groups like Concerned Women for America, the National Association of Evangelicals and American Values, say officials are not moving swiftly enough.

  包括人权第一和人权观察组织以及一些保守的组织像关注美国妇女组织,全美福音派协会以及美国价值在内的难民权力组织官员说,政府官员一直拖拖沓沓。

  Representative Joe Pitts, Republican of Pennsylvania, has proposed legislation that would bar only members and supporters of groups designated as terrorist organizations by the State Department.

  宾夕法尼亚州代表乔·皮特提议通过一项仅禁止那些美国国务院认定的恐怖组织的成员和支持者的法案。

  But State Department officials say they do not expect any movement on such legislation before Nov. 7.

  但是国务院官员称在11月7日以前这一立法不可能有什么进展。

  Many refugee advocates fear that administration officials and members of Congress are delaying action because they do not want to be viewed as easing up on terrorism during an election year.

  许多难民权力支持者担心政府官员和国会议员采取了拖延的行为,因为他们不愿意在大选年被看作是放松反恐措施。

  Michael J. Horowitz, a neoconservative who worked in the White House of President Ronald Reagan and testified at the hearing on Wednesday, said in a statement that it was “inexcusable that for more than two years the administration has dragged its feet” in finding a solution for the refugees who fought alongside Americans in Vietnam.

  曾在里根政府工作过的新保守主义者迈克尔·J·霍洛维茨在星期三的听证会上作证。在一项声明中他说,解决与美国一道战斗过的越南难民问题“2年多以来政府在这件事情上一直拖拖沓沓,无所作为,这是不可饶恕的”。

  The antiterrorism provisions have also affected 500 asylum seekers in the United States, whose cases have been delayed and has prevented 700 people, who have already been deemed refugees or granted asylum, from becoming permanent residents here for the time being.

  反恐条款也影响到了美国500余名需要收容的人员,他们的案子被一再拖延,而且有700名被确认难民身份并准予收容的人员,但他们目前还不可能有永久居住权。

  Senator Sam Brownback, Republican of Kansas, urged the administration to redouble its efforts on behalf of the Burmese refugees and others who desperately need to resettle. “I know we have a lot security concerns to watch for,” Mr. Brownback said at the hearing. “But there are huge populations that are absolutely persecuted and have no other option.”

  堪萨斯州共和党参议员山姆·布朗巴克代表缅甸难民以及其他急需安置的难民敦促政府加倍努力。“我知道我们有很多安全问题需要注意,”布朗巴克在会上说。“但是有很多人是被迫害的,他们没有别的选择。”