三、简单句中的省略
1.省略主语
1)祈使句中的主语通常被省略 如:
 (You) Open the door, please. 请开一下门。 
2) 其它省略主语多限于现成的说法 如:
 a) (I) Thank you for your help 谢谢你的帮助。
 b) (It)Doesn’t matter.没关系。
2.省略主谓语或主谓语的一部分 如:
 a) (There is) No smoking. 禁止抽烟
 b) (Is there)anything else ? 还有其他事吗 ?
 c) (You come)This way please.请这边走。
 d) (Will you) Have a smoke ? 抽烟吗 ?
3.省略宾语 如:
 —Do you know Mr. Li ? 你认识李先生吗?— I don’t know (him.) 我不认识他
4.省略表语 如:
 —Are you thirsty ? 你30岁了吗? Yes , I am (thirsty). 是的,我是。
5.同时省略几个成分 如:
 a) —Are you feeling better now? 你觉得好些了吗 ?—(I am feeling ) Much better (now) 好多了。
 b) (I wish) Good luck (to you) .祝你好运/祝你顺利。

四、动词不定式省略,只保留to 的场合
1.不定式作某些动词的宾语时,这些动词常见的有:love, like, care, wish, hope, expect, prefer, refuse, mean , try , oblige ,
advise , persuade , agree , want , afford , forget , remember , try , manage等。如:
 a)— You should have thanked her before you left . —I meant to ,but when I was leaving I couldn’t find her anywhere.—你本
该在离开前谢谢她。—我本打算这么做,但当我就要离开的时候我却找不到她了。(2000上海春)
 b) You can do it this way if you like to .如果你想做,你可以这么做。
2.不定式作某些动词的宾语补足语或主语补足语时,这些动词常见的有:ask , tell ,advise, force, persuade, wish, allow, permit ,
forbid ,expect, order ,warn 等。如 :
 a) The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street ,but his mother told him not to. 男孩想在街上骑他的自行车,但他母亲不让
。(NMET1995)
 b) She wants to come but her parents won’t allow her to (come). 她想来,可是她父母不让。
3.不定式在句中作某些形容词的状语时,常见的形容词有:happy, glad ,eager , anxious , willing , ready 等。如:
 — I will be away on a business trip .Could you mind looking after my cat ?       — Not at all.I would be happy to (look after
your cat). —我要出差,你能帮我照顾一下我的猫吗?—没关系,我很愿意。
4.不定式作某些复合谓语时,常见结构如:be able to, be going to, have to, ought to, used to等。如:
 He doesn’t like fish but he used to 他现在不喜欢吃鱼,但过去喜欢。

五、动词不定式to 的省略
1.主语部分有to do ,系动词 is 或 was 时 ,作表语的不定式通常省去to。如:
 The only thing you have to do is press the button.你必须做的惟一事情是按按钮。
2.作介词but ,expect ,besides 的宾语,前面又有实意动词 do时,不定式通常省去to. 如:
 He said that Chen Shuibian had nothing to do except push a pro-“independence” timetable.他说陈水扁除了推进支持“独立”的
时间表外,什么也没有做。
3.主语部分暗含to do,表语中的不定式通常省去to。如:
 All I want (to do) is go to school and study hard .我想要(做)的就是上学,努力学习。
4.当两个或多个不定式并列时,其后的不定式符号可以省略,但有对比关系时不可省略。如:
 It is easier to say than to do . 说起来容易,做起来难。
5.在would rather…than… 等结构中,不定式符号常常要省略. 如:
 I would rather stay at home than go to see a film.我宁愿呆在家也不愿去看电影。
6.在see ,watch ,notice ,hear, listen to ,look at ,feel ,have, make, let ,observe 等词后作宾语补足语时省略不定式符号to;why
(not) do 结构 中, 不定式不带to。如:
 a) I saw her enter the room. 我看见她进入了房间
 b) Why not join us ?为什么不加入到我们的行列里来呢?

六.其他一些省略结构
1.名词所有格修饰的名词,若表示住宅、店铺、教堂或上下文已暗示或明确指出过的事物时,常常可以省略。如:
 We spent the weekend at the Mary's. 我们在玛丽家过的周末。
2.What和 how引导的感叹句中,常可省略主语 it 和be动词 如:
 a) What a wonderful victory (it is ) for Tom ! 这对Tom来说是个多么大的胜利呀!
 b) How beautiful (it is ) to be treated like a normal child. 被当作一个正常孩子对待对他而言是多么美妙的一件事呀。