SECTION I : "R" and "L" {Counter #.................}

[LANGUAGE NOTE : The American-style initial R-Sound should be practiced by speakers of all other first language groups. Of course, R/L confusion usually takes place with speakers of East Asian language -- those of JAPAN, CHINA, KOREA, and SOUTHEAST ASIA. Be particularly careful not to insert the extra vowel sound when the "R" follows other consonants if you are a speaker of HINDI (and other subcontinent languages), ARABIC, FARSI, and TOGOLOG.

L4/S1-A : THE "R" (consonant) Phonetic Symbol : [ r ]

 

SPELLING :
"r" as in RUN TRUCK FRONT
RED, ROSE, ROME, REACH, RENT, REMEMBER
GREEN, FRIED, CRASH, BREW, BREAK, FREIGHT
TREE, TRY, TROUBLE, TRICK
- THE TREE IS GROWING FROM THE LAWN.
- I HAD TROUBLE BROILING THE FRESH FISH.
- IT'S TRUE THAT I'M PROUD OF THE WINTER CROP.

Here are a few more drills for the R-shaded vowels.

repeat rid rest rat root rookie rough run rake roast rye round royal rear rural rotten roar tree free trip grid Fred tread true brew crook broad trust crop tropic grade thrill chrome grown freight trial crowd proud Troy broil trash crash

- Remember the Red River Rovers whenever revisiting Texas.
- Real estate agents read listings regularly.
- Trucks from the farm ravaged the remaining structures.
- Retractors really roll away from your grip.
- Red roses represent real royalty there in France.

L4/S1-B : THE "L" Phonetic Symbol : [ l ]

 SPELLING:

"I" or "II" as in LONG, LOST, HALL
LOVE, LOAN, ELECTION, SELL

Now try these extra drills for L not found on the tape. 

leap, lick, let, latch, loop, look, lost, lot, luck, element, elaborate, illuminate, Alabama, political, peel, pill, spell, gal, pool, pull, toll, tall, girl

- Listen, Larry, we'd like to level with you about your lawn.
- Until eleven its less likely to happen.
- Spelling takes a toll on the girl's listening abilities.
- The lesson learned is clearly about loving your daily labor.

L4/S1-C : CONTRASTING "R" and "L"

-- THE LONG RIVER LOOKS REALLY LOVELY.
-- LUCY WAS REAL LUCKY.
-- THE RENT IS LIKELY TO RISE LATER.
-- A LOT OF RAIN LEAKED THROUGH THE ROOF.

And some additional contrasts which are not recorded on the tape:

element/error load/road wrong/long illness/irregular rug/lug rust/lust regulate/legislate roast/close royal/loyal

SECTION II : "V" and "W"

{Counter # ........}

[LANGUAGE NOTE : Pay particular attention to the V and W formations and contrasts if your first language is GERMAN, RUSSIAN, other SLAVIC languages, as well as FINNISH, HUNGARIAN, NORWEGIAN, SWEDISH, and DANISH, FARSI, HINDI and other languages of the subcontinent.]

L4/S2-A : THE "V" Phonetic Symbol : [ v ]

Spellings :
"v" as in VERY, HAVE
"f" as in OF
VERY, EVERY, VOTE, HAVE, VOICE, SAVE Now try these extra drills for the V consonant.

veal, visit, vest, voodoo, Vaughn, vacate, vote, vibrate, void, veer, vary, vat, fever, harvest, avoid, save, grieve, relieve, love, shelves, wave, groove, grove, leave

L4/S2-B : THE "W" Phonetic Symbol : [ w ]

SPELLINGS :
"w" as in WILL WORK WEST
"u+another vowel" as in QUICK  OCCASIONAL SPELLING :
"wh" as in WHICH, WHEN, WHETHER

HOWEVER -- There are many parts of the United States where the W sound is pronounced with a slight, voiceless air puff before the lip glide when the word contains the "wh" spelling.

WEST, WILL, WANT, WORRY, WATCH, WAS, WEDNESDAY

And here are extra W drills not recorded on the tape.

we, will, west, wax, wooed, walk, wok, woke, wake, wow, war, were, west, will, want, which, want, whale, when, white, whip

L4/S2-C : CONTRASTING "V" and "W"

-- VICTOR WAS VERY WORRIED.
-- I WANT TO VOTE NEXT WEDNESDAY.
-- EVERYONE WAS VISITING THE WEST COAST.
-- I NEVER WORKED VERY HARD ON WEDNESDAY EVENINGS.

And now a few extra pair :

west/vest worse/verse went/vent Velma/well

L4/S2-D : CONTRASTING "R", "W", and "V"

REST/WEST/VEST RAIN/WAYNE/VAIN REAL/WHEEL/VEAL RAIL/WHALE/VALE

And a few other sets for you to practice:

rill/will/villain Rome/won't/vote rye/why/violent/round/wound/vow

SECTION III : "B" and "V" {Counter #.......}

L4/S3-A: THE "B" Phonetic Symbol: [ b ]

[LANGUAGE NOTE : SPANISH speakers must pay closest attention to the contrast between the American "B" and "V" consonants.]

SPELLINGS :
"b" or "bb" as in BEAR CAB CABBAGE
BERRY, BOAT, BANK, ABOUT, BORROW, BOAT, BASEBALL

And now some additional drills for the "B" consonant which aren't recorded on the tape.

beet, big, beg, bag, boot, book, bought, bottom, but, bail, boat, bite, bout, boy, boar, beer, cable, cribbage, cubic, cobble, bribe, ebb, cab, boob, hub, Abe, robe, verb

L4/S3-B : CONTRASTING "B" and "V"

-- THE BOAT IS VERY BIG.
-- CAN THE BOY VISIT HIS BROTHER VICTOR?
-- I HAVE TO BORROW FIVE BANK NOTES.
-- I HAVE BETTER VISION FROM THE BACK ROW.

And now try some additional B/V contrast.

very/berry verb/bird bid/video vote/boat veil/bail
Bill/villain Ben/venerable average/about