When words add "s" or "ed" it's hard to tell exactly what will happen in the pronunciation. Here are the basic rules. Listen to the tape for examples of each category.

SECTION I: ADDING "ED" FOR PAST TENSE VERBS {Counter #............}

L2/S1-A

If the verb ends in "D" or "T" the past tense will add the full syllable "ED." But most Americans will pronounce it as if it were "ID"

NOW I HAND TO HIM.
YESTERDAY I HANDED TO HIM.

I CAN GRANT THE WISH.
YESTERDAY I GRANTED THE WISH.

HAND/HANDED, HEAD/HEADED, GRADE/GRADED, PARADE/PARADED

 

SEAT/SEATED, GREET/GREETED, TREADT/TREATED (Remember, the "T's" are now medial and will sound more like soft "D's.")

THEY HEADED NORTH.
HE WORE A KNITTED SWEATER.
THEY ADOPTED A CHILD.

Now try these additional samples.

seeded, beaded, aided, raided, traded, wooded, carded, regarded, pitted, patted, grated, kindhearted, booted, suited, started

L2/S1-B

If a regular verb ends in "P," "K," "S," or "SH," the past tense will add a softly exploding "T" sound.

SIP/SIPPED, MAP/MAPPED, CRACKED, KISSED, MISSED, FISHED, CRASHED

And now try a few additional words in this category.

caped, seeped, chipped, ripped, hoped, hopped, backed, baked, poked, soaked, missed, harassed, wished, cashed

But if any of these words (which now end in a "T" sound) come right before words beginning with vowel sound, that "imaginary T" is now medial. Now that it's between vowels again, it will Americanize to a soft "D."

("T" sound) ("D" sound") I SIPPED THE DRINK. I SIPPED IT. HE CRACKED THE GLASS. HE CRACKED IT. I KISSED THE BOOK. I KISSED IT. I CASHED THE CHECK. I CASHED IN THE BONDS.

And a few extras:

chipped open, ripped off, hoped a lot, backed away, apple, missed everybody, packed, hopped along, poked in the ribs

L2/S1-C

If a regular verb ends in any sounds other "T" "D" "P" "K," "S" or "SH," the past tense will add a "D" and no extra syllable in the word. SOLOED, PLAYED, SKIED, SEEMED, CANNED, STIRRED, RESOLVED

And now try some extras which aren't recorded on the tape.

bribed, died, denied,, judged, handled, rammed, planned, discovered, favored, saved, played, enjoyed, annoyed

SECTION II : ADDING "S" TO NOUNS OR VERBS {Counter #......}

L2/S2-A

The added "S" or "ES" is pronounced as an unvoiced "S" only when the root word ends in "P," "T," "K," or "F."

HIP/HIPS, SIP/SIPS, CAP/CAPS, STOP/STOPS, SITS/SITS, BET/BETS,
POCKET/POCKETS, SACK/SACKS, BREAK/BREAKS, CHUCK/CHUCK'S,
CLIFF/CLIFFS, BRIEF/BRIEFS, SAFE/SAFES

Now these additional examples:

dopes, hops, mops, hopes, seats, greets, goats, cracks, racks, shakes, stocks, socks, giraffes, bluffs

But, be careful. Some words ending in "F" actually change their spelling to "V" in the plural. You then follow the rule for "V" instead of "F."

LEAF/LEAVES and HALF/HALVES

L2/S2-B

The added "S"or "ES" is pronounced as the full syllable "ez" or "iz" when root word ends in any of the following sounds: "S" "Z" "SH" "GH" "CH" or "DG."

GLASS/GLASSES, BUSSES, MISSES, BUZZES, RAISES, PRAISES, ROSES,
BUSHES, BRUSHES, PUSHES,
CHURCHES, CRUTCHES, BUNCHES,
JUDGE'S, BADGES, RAGES

And some additional word in this category:

kisses, hisses, pieces, releases, places, reces, graces, freezes, breezes, blazes, seizes, poses, pushes, cashes, lurches. lunches, crutches, garages, lodges, catches

L2/S2-C:

The added "S" or "ES" is pronounced as the voiced "Z" (without an extra vowel and without forming an extra syllable), when the root ends in any vowel sound or in any consonants except the ones in the last two categories.

PIANOS, DAYS, SKIES, SHOES, COWS,
SINGS, SIGNS,
HEMS, BRIBES, HEADS, BAGS, SAVES

And a few more:

grows, rows, plays, sees, agrees, blows, photos, bows, wines, hands, begs, graves, king's, graves, waves, borrows. men's