第一篇:有关匹兹堡经济转型对中国经济的借鉴作用。这一段落出自伯南克的一篇文章,有一定修改,总体风格比较平实,陌生经济术语不多,只是某些句式有些拗口,译不好会听起来比较别扭。

Para 1

The slowing of China’s economic growth has many causes. In my view, it is a healthy development, resulting from a necessary change in China's growth model. Since the beginning of China's growth miracle, a large part of the country's development has been directed from the center. This "top-down" approach has focused on heavy industry, infrastructure, and the promotion of exports. This growth model had its roots in central planning. but China also encourages its market liberalization and openness to international competition, thus making important gains in productivity and technological upgrading.  This strategy has been incredibly successful. the Chinese economy is two-and-a-half times bigger today than a decade ago  

参考答案:中国经济发展的放缓,有很多的原因,在我看来,这种发展是健康的,是由中国发展模式所进行的必要调整造成的。 这个国家发展的奇迹的最初时刻,其发展主要来自于中央政府的指令。这种自上而下的发展方式主要集中于重工业、基础设施以及推动出口。这种发展方式植根于中央集权式的计划经济,但中国同时也鼓励市场自由化并向国际竞争开放。在生产力以及技术改造方面获得了很大的进展。这一战略非常成功,目前中国的经济体量已经是十年前的两倍半。

the Chinese economy is two-and-a-half times bigger today than a decade ago。本句加一个名词体量,就显得比较平稳。而相反,汉英翻译时,体量一词就完全可以省去。

important gains in productivity and technological upgrading.这句话出现了抽象接抽象的情况,处理时要想清楚三个抽象名词之间的关系。

Para 2

However, the top-down strategy has its limits. The share of output going into manufacturing, infrastructure, and exports is too large to be sustained. And there is an overemphasis on capital investment and exports rather than on consumption. Recognizing these limits, China is working to make the transition to a "bottom-up" growth model, focused on the development of services industries, that is, retail trade, health, education, finance, and transportation. Services currently make up about half of the Chinese economy, compared to about four-fifths of the economy of the United States.  That productivity in services generally does not grow as quickly as in manufacturing, this transition will involve slower economic growth.

参考答案: 但是这种由上而下的策略存在局限性。国民收入进入基础建设和出口领域比例过大,因此不可持续。同时过度强调资本投资和出口而忽视了消费。中国政府意识到了这种局限性。正在努力进行转型,变为一种自下而上的发展模式。主要强调发展服务业也就是发展零售业、健康产业、教育、金融和交通业的发展。目前服务业占据中国经济的大约一半,而美国的服务业占据经济的五分之四。通常情况下,生产服务业的生产力发展速度不如制造业发展得快,这种转型会减慢经济增长速度

exports is too large to be sustained.这是非常著名的太……而不能句,直译听起来翻译腔十足,实际上并没有什么用,不如直接去掉。

And there is an overemphasis on capital investment and exports rather than on consumption.这一there be加rather的用法,会让译者一瞬间产生非常别扭的译文,实际上还是词性转换接断句和增词,这样就可以产生顺畅的译文。

Services currently make up about half of the Chinese economy, compared to about four-fifths of the economy of the United States.这句话里的关键就在compare一词可以合理省略,比较结构处理的第一选择应该是如何不译,而不是如何再现结构,相反,汉英当中,如果能“无中生有”地出一个compared译品的质量就很高。

Para 3

The experience of some of American’s old industrial cities like Pittsburg offers useful lessons to China as it goes through this crucial economic transition. The economy of Pittsburg was built on heavy industry, a model that eventually reached its limits. And heavy industry took a heavy toll on its environment. Pittsburg and other American industrial cities that succeeded in reviving their economies did so primarily by turning from manufacturing to services.in these cities, the government and private sectors worked together to revitalize downtowns, to develop tourist attractions and conference facilities, clean up the environment, and improve transportation links and other critical infrastructure. They then attracted businesses in “clean” sectors like medicine, technology, finance, and retail.

参考答案:美国一些老工业城市比如匹兹堡,经历了重要的经济转型。他们的发展经验能够为中国提出有用的借鉴。匹兹堡的经济建立在重工业的基础上,而这一发展模式最终遇到了瓶颈。重工业在环保方面付出了巨大的代价。匹兹堡及一些美国其他的工业城市,成功的重振了他们的经济,主要靠得是由制造业向服务业转型。这些城市的政府和私人机构共同合作,重新振兴了市中心地区,发展,旅游景点以及会展业,清洁了环境,提升交通条件以及其他的基础服务设施。因此它们吸引来了一些较为清洁的产业,比如医药、技术、金融和零售业。

The experience of some of American’s old industrial cities like Pittsburg offers useful lessons to China as it goes through this crucial economic transition. 这个句子的难点在处理experience一词,在听的过程中要能记住,而且要做到“引而不发”,先翻译后面的事实,然后再说经验,考验的是译者在长结构中调整句式的能力。

did so primarily by turning from manufacturing to services. 制造业向服务业转型。很自然地加上一个“业”字,整个句子就顺了,英译汉当中使用范畴词的技巧有助于表达自然而符合习惯。

They then attracted businesses in “clean” sectors,对sector一词泛译为产业,实际上应该是“产业部门”,但在汉语表达上似乎区别不大,如果是汉译英,很可能需要在校对时进行调整。

Para 4

Strengthening education was the key. It has the benefits like attracting and maintaining skilled workforces and setting up high tech companies.  Pittsburgh’s redevelopment was greatly helped by hosting several major universities. Particularly the universities of Pittsburg which led efforts to build research facilities where old factories had once stood.The symbol of Pittsburgh’s transformation is that the form of U.S. Steel building at the downtown in Pittsburg, the headquarters of a steel company.it is now the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, which is the largest employer in the whole region. How can China make a transition to a more services-oriented economy like Pittsburg has done? Reducing the subsidies to exports and heavy industry, while continuing reforms to make it easier to start new businesses, is critical steps.  China can also enter into partnerships with foreign companies that can bring essential expertise in various fields.

参考答案:加强教育发展是重中之重,教育能够带来各种好处,包括吸引并留住一些熟练工人并建立起高技术产业。匹兹堡的重新发展得益于其是几所大学的所在地。尤其是匹兹堡下大力量,在原先厂房的旧址上建立起了大学的研究机构。这一转变的标志就是在城市的中心美国钢铁大厦,即一家钢铁公司的总部所在地,现在已经成为匹兹堡医学中心,成为城市当中用工最多的机构。中国如何才能像匹兹堡一样进行这一服务业转型?关键步骤是减少重工业和出口补贴,同时深入改革,让创立新公司变得更加容易。中国也可以通过与外国公司建立伙伴关系,在不同领域内引进专家人才。

Pittsburgh’s redevelopment was greatly helped by hosting several major universities.这个句子里两个动词help和host,在汉语当中主语都应该是人而非物,因此在翻译时要有意识地调整,否则译文会觉得非常生硬。从中也能看出英汉在动词使用方面的差异,及物,动词的范围,主语的情况,都要考虑才能译文流利。

Reducing the subsidies to exports and heavy industry, while continuing reforms to make it easier to start new businesses, is critical steps.这类掉尾句对听力要求较高,系动词离主语部分比较远,容易出现判断失误,无法完全理解,需要在日常训练中不断自行练习。一个句子可以同时说成松散和掉尾两种结构,说上几十个句子,自己也就习惯了。

Para 5

Reviving old American industrial cities like Pittsburg offers a useful lesson to China. which is the building a strong middle class: Middle-class households are the primary market for a wide range of services, from education to health care to retail to entertainment. For American cities like Pittsburg, attracting middle-class consumers involved improving public infrastructure and education, reducing crime, and increasing job opportunities. In the case of China, to build the strong middle class, it needs to strengthen the social safety net, as this will give households the income security so that they can save less and spend more。 it also needs to reduce excessive government regulations and provides more consumer choices. A strong Chinese middle class will stimulate the development of new services industries and give the “bottom-up” approach a chance to succeed.

参考答案:像匹兹堡这样的美国老工业城市的振兴对中国是有用的一课就是要建立强大的中产阶层。中产阶级家庭是一系列服务的主要市场,包括教育、健康保健、零售以及娱乐业。美国像匹兹堡这样的城市,想要吸引中产阶级消费者,就需要提升公共基础设施和教育水平,降低罪犯率以及增加就业机会。谈到中国,要想建立强大的中产阶级,就需要加强社保安全网,让每个家庭对自己的收入感觉放心,这样他们就会少存款,多花钱。同时还要减少政府的过度干预,为消费者提供更多的选择。一个坚强的中国中产阶级阶层将刺激新型服务业发展,令这种自下而上的方式有可能取得成功。

For American cities like Pittsburg, attracting middle-class consumers involved improving public infrastructure and education, reducing crime, and increasing job opportunities.这个句子的中心动词为involve但只要这个词一出现,译文就会变得笨重不堪,因为后面的宾语长得停不下来,参考译文处理成一个带假如的主从复合句,就变得轻松了许多。

give households the income security英语中可以直接用名词修辞另一个抽象名词,而这种说法在汉语当中并不清楚,往往要通过拆分和解释的方法进行处理,望文生义的译法是行不通的。

give the “bottom-up” approach a chance to succeed.直译为尝试一下,但在这个上下文中没必要多加一个主语,就译成了有可能,这就是所谓译文的灵活不拘一格。