Questions 61 — 70 are based on the following passage.

Now which are the animals really to be pitied in captivity? First, those clever beings whose lively urge for activity can find no outlet behind the bars of the cage. This is most conspicuous, even for the uninitiated, in the case of animals which, when living in a free state, are accustomed to roaming about widely. Owing to this frustrated desire, foxes and wolves housed, in many old-fashioned zoos, in cages which are far too small, are among the most pitiable of all caged animals.

Though pinioned swans generally seem happy, under proper care, by hatching and tearing their young without any trouble, at migration time things become different: they repeatedly swim to the lee side of the pond, in order to have the whole extent of its surface at their disposal, trying to take off. Again and again the grand preparations end in a pathetic flutter of their half wings; a truly sorry picture!

This, however, rarely awakens the pity of the zoo visitor, least of all when such an originally highly intelligent and mentally alert animal has deteriorated, in confinement, into a crazy idiot, a very caricature of its former self. Sentimental old ladies, the fanatical sponsors of the societies for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, have no compunction in keeping a grey parrot in a relatively small cage or even chained to a perch. Together with the large corvines, the parrots are probably the only birds which suffer from that state of mind, common to prisoners, namely, boredom.

61. What is an “outlet” in the context of this passage?

A. An opportunity for expression.

B. A place to let.

C. A chance of escape into a wood

D. An exit for a marketer.

62. What does “the uninitiated” mean?

A. People who visit animals in urban zoos.

B. People who do not like animals of the wild.

C. People who know little about a certain topic.

D. People who do not visit zoos every year.

63. According to the author in Paragraph 1, what animals suffer most in captivity?

A. Climbing animals.

B. Hunting animals.

C. Parroting animals.

D. Singing animals.

64. What do you think “hatching and rearing their young” means?

A. Raising families.

B. Getting on well with smaller birds.

C. Behaving like young birds.

D. Attacking smaller birds.

65. Which is the “lee side” of the pond?

A. The side the wind is blowing from.

B. The side which is sheltered from a storm.

C. The side the wind id blowing towards.

D. The side where the water is the deepest.

66. According to the author, swans in captivity are ______.

A. happy unless their wings have been cut

B. happy most of the time, but unhappy sometimes

C. unhappy most of the time

D. only happy when they are bringing up families

67. What effect does confinement have on clever animals, according to the text?

A. They never stop trying to escape.

B. They lose all their muscles.

C. They become unhygienic.

D.They may go mad.

68. In Paragraph 3, the expression “have no compunction about” most probably means” have no _____.

A .reaction to

B. understanding of

C. second thoughts about

D. enlightenment on

69. What does the author say about sentimental old ladies?

A. They do not care about animals.

B. They hate making animals suffer.

C. They enjoy making animals suffer.

D. They do not realise the consequences.

70. What do you think “large corvines” probably are?

A. Another kind of bird.

B. Another kind of parrot.

C. Another kind of swans.

D. Other birds that convince us.

Question 71—80 are based on the following passage.

The fact that most Americans live in urban areas does not mean that they reside in the center of large cities. In fact, more Americans live in the suburbs of large metropolitan areas than in the cities themselves.

The Bureau of the Census regards any area with more than 2,500 people as an urban area, and does not consider boundaries of cities and suburbs.

According to the Bureau, the political boundaries are less significant than the social and economic relationships and the transportation and communication systems that integrate a locale. The term used by the Bureau for an integrated metropolis is an MSA, which stands for Metropolitan Statistical Area. In general, an MSA is any area that contains a city and its surrounding suburbs and has a total population of 50,000 or more.

At the present time, the Bureau reports more than 280 MSAs, which together account for 75 percent of the US population. In addition, the Bureau recognizes 18 megapolises, that is, continuous adjacent metropolitan areas. One of the most obvious megapolises includes a chain of hundreds of cities and suburbs across 10 states on the East Coast from Massachusetts to Virginia, including Boston, New York, and Washington, D.C. In the Eastern Corridor, as it is called, a population of 45 million inhabitants is concentrated. Another megapolis that is growing rapidly is the California coast from San Francisco through Los Angeles to San Diego.

71. Which of the following is the best title for the passage?

A. Metropolitan Statistical Areas

B. Types of Population Centers

C. The Bureau of the Census

D. Megapolises

72. According to the passage, where do most Americans live?

A. In the center of cities.

B. In the suburbs surrounding large cities.

C. In rural areas.

D. In small towns.

73. The underlined word “reside” in Paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to _____.

A. fill

B. decide

C. occupy

D. live

74. According to the Bureau of the Census, what is an urban area?

A. A chain of adjacent cities.

B. An area with at least 50,000 people.

C. The 18 largest cities.

D. An area with 2,500 people or more.

75. Which of the following are NOT considered important in defining an urban area?

A. Political boundaries.

B. Transportation networks.

C. Social relationships.

D. Economic systems.

76. The underlined word “integrate” in Paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to _____.

A. benefit

B. define

C. unite

D. restrict

77. Which of the following is NOT true?

A. An integrated metropolis is an MSA.

B. MSA stands for Metropolitan Statistical Area.

C. A metropolis includes at least a metropolitan.

D. An MSA refers to city and its suburbs, with over 50,000 people.

78. The underlined word “adjacent” in the last paragraph is closest in meaning to _____.

A. beside each other

B. growing very fast

C. the same size

D. densely populated

79. According to the passage, what is a megapolis?

A. One of the 10 largest cities in the United States.

B. One of the 18 largest cities in the United States.

C. One of the 100 cities between Boston and Washington.

D. Any number of continuous adjacent cities and suburbs.

80. Why does the author mention the Eastern Corridor and the California coast in Paragraph 4?

A. As examples of megapolises.

B. Because 75 percent of the population lives there.

C. To conclude the passage.

D. The Bureau of the Census is located there.

Questions 81 — 90 are based on the following passage.

“what does the middleman do but add to the price of goods in the shops?” Such remarks are aimed at the intermediate operations between manufacturers and final customers. This practice usually attracts a lot of attention from the public and the press and the operation most talked about is what is often called wholesaling.

The wholesaler buys goods in large quantities from the manufacturers and sells them in smaller parcels to retailers, and for this service his selling price to the retailer is raised several percent higher. But his job is made more difficult by retail demand not necessarily running level with manufacturers’ production. Because he adjusts or regulates the flow of goods by holding stock until required, he frees the manufacturer, to some extent, from the effect on production of changing demand and having to bear the whole risk.

The manufacture can then keep up a steady production flow, and the retailer has no need to hold heavy stocks, who can call on the wholesaler for supplies any time. This wholesale function id like that of a valve in a water pipe. The middleman also bears part of the risk that would otherwise fall on the manufacturer and also the retailer.

The wholesaler provides a purely commercial service, for which he is too well rewarded. But the point that is missed by many people is that the wholesaler is not just someone adding to the cost of goods. It is true one could eliminate the wholesaler but one would still be left with his function: that of making sure that goods find their way to the people who want them.

81. “Middleman” in the passage almost equals to all the following in meaning EXCEPT _____.

A. go-between

B. intermediary

C. manufacturer

D. wholesaler

82. “This practice” in Paragraph 1 most probably refers to the fact that the middleman _____.

A. increases the prices in the shops

B. buys from you and sells to me

C. aims remarks at manufacturers

D. interferes with end user customers

83. The wholesaler obtains higher selling prices for _____.

A. small parcels he sells

B. goods he buys in bulk

C. the service he provides

D. the information he offers

84. A middleman’s work may become difficult because _____.

A. manufacturers run their production on a much higher level

B.market demand may not be the same as industrial production

C. retailers are not necessary in running their retailing business

D. retailers demand lower levels than those demanded by manufacturers

85. The wholesaler regulates the flow of goods by _____.

A. running level with manufacturers’ production

B. holding down stock of commodities

C. keeping stock for stronger demand

D. adjusting the prices of goods in time

86. The middleman relieves the producer of _____.

A. fluctuating market demand and staying at risk

B. the production of commodities for the retail market

C. some extent of production of changing demand

D. storing goods in a warehouse until they are needed

87. What function of the wholesaler is compared to a valve?

A. Controlling the flow of goods.

B. Pushing up demand from retailers.

C. Bearing part of the risk for manufacturers.

D. Selling goods to retailers.

88. Which of the following statement is true?

A. People cannot do without the wholesaler’s function.

B. The function of the wholesaler does not add to the cost of goods.

C. The wholesaler helps to reduce the price of goods in shops.

D. The wholesaler is well paid for his commercial service.

89. The author quite possibly believes that the function of the wholesaler is _____.

A. good but too costly

B. necessary but harmful

C. removable but necessary

D. acceptable but unnecessary

90. Which of the following titles is most appropriate for this passage?

A. The Greedy Wholesalers

B. The Wholesalers in the Public Eye

C. A Retail Market with Wholesalers

D. Can We Do without the Wholesaler?

KEYS:

61. A 62. C 63. B 64. A 65. C 66. B 67. D 68. C 69. D 70.

A 71. B 72. B 73. D 74. D 75. A 76. C 77. C 78. A 79. D 80. A

81. C 82. B 83. C 84. B 85. C 86. A 87. A 88. D 89. C 90.D