本周的新闻热词有:

1.中央定调2018'货币政策'

2.'生态环境损害赔偿'试行

3.2017汉语'年度字词'揭晓

4.京首发'自动驾驶车'细则

5.美国国会通过'税改'法案

1.png


1. 货币政策

monetary policy

请看例句:

China has decided to maintain a prudent and neutral monetary policy in 2018 as the world's second largest economy strives to balance growth and risk prevention.

作为世界第二大经济体,我国努力平衡增长与风险防范之间的关系,决定在2018年继续实施稳健中性的货币政策。

18-20日,中央经济工作会议(the Central Economic Work Conference)在北京召开。会议确定,打好防范化解重大风险攻坚战,重点是防控金融风险(financial risk),要服务于供给侧结构性改革(supply-side structural reform)这条主线,促进形成金融和实体经济、金融和房地产、金融体系内部的良性循环(virtuous cycle),做好重点领域风险防范(risk prevention)和处置,坚决打击违法违规金融活动(illegal financial activities),加强薄弱环节(weak links)监管制度建设。

中央经济工作会议强调,稳健的货币政策要保持中性(prudent monetary policy should be kept neutral),管住货币供给总闸门(the floodgates of monetary supply should be controlled),保持货币信贷和社会融资规模合理增长(credit and social financing should see reasonable growth),保持人民币汇率在合理均衡水平上的基本稳定(the yuan's exchange rate will be kept basically stable at a reasonable and balanced level),促进多层次资本市场(multi-tiered capital market)健康发展,更好为实体经济服务(serve the real economy),守住不发生系统性金融风险(systemic financial risk)的底线。中央作出此番定调是因为我国面临着既要确保稳定的经济增长和流动性,同时也要避免金融风险的双重任务(China faces the dual task of ensuring stable economic growth and liquidity while averting financial risks)。

[相关词汇]

优化结构 optimize structure

流动性风险 liquidity risk

系统性风险 systematic risk

外汇管制 foreign exchange regulations

资产质量 asset quality

2. 生态环境损害赔偿

ecological and environmental damage compensation

请看例句:

The General Office of the Communist Party of China Central Committee and the General Office of the State Council jointly issued a reform plan for the ecological and environmental damage compensation system recently. By 2020, China aims to establish an efficient comprehensive damage compensation system to protect and improve the country's ecosystem.

中共中央办公厅和国务院办公厅近日联合印发了《生态环境损害赔偿制度改革方案》。到2020年,我国计划建立综合的损害赔偿制度以保护和改善我国的生态系统。

该方案中的生态环境损害(ecological and environmental damage),是指因污染环境、破坏生态(environmental pollution and ecological damage)造成大气、地表水、地下水、土壤、森林等环境要素和植物、动物、微生物等生物要素的不利改变(unfavorable changes of environmental elements such as air, surface water, underground water, soil and forest, as well as biological elements such as plants, animals and microbes),以及上述要素构成的生态系统功能退化(functional deterioration of ecosystem)。

方案规定,违反法律法规,造成生态环境损害的企业或个人(companies or individuals that cause ecological and environmental damage)应当承担生态环境损害赔偿责任,做到应赔尽赔;生态环境损害无法修复(the damages are beyond restoration)的,实施货币赔偿(monetary compensation),用于替代修复。省级、市地级政府(provincial or municipal governments)可指定相关部门或机构负责生态环境损害赔偿具体工作。跨省域的生态环境损害(trans-provincial ecological damage),由生态环境损害地的相关省级政府协商开展生态环境损害赔偿工作。

[相关词汇]

河流污染 river pollution

环境监测 environmental monitoring

非法排污 illegal discharge of pollutants

环保警察 environmental police

3. 年度字词

Character and Word of the Year

请看例句:

"Intelligence" and "a community with a shared future for mankind" have been chosen as International Chinese Character of the Year and International Chinese Word of the Year, in a competition organized by National Center for Language Resources Monitoring and Research and the Commercial Press.

在国家语言资源监测与研究中心和商务印书馆近日组织的年度字词评选中,"智"和"人类命运共同体"分别当选年度国际字、词。

在此次评选活动中,"享(sharing)"和"初心(original aspiration)"最终当选年度国内字、词(National Character of the Year and National Chinese Word of the Year)。共"享"经济("sharing" economy)打造美好生活,不忘"初心"(remain true to our "original aspiration")继续砥砺前行(work hard to press ahead),人工"智"能(artificial "intelligence")引领未来发展,构建"人类命运共同体"为世界发展贡献中国智慧(Chinese vision)……专家表示,这些字词概括了过去一年里令人难忘的时事、世情、民心,记录着世界的变化、时代的变迁(the changing of times)。

据悉,"汉语盘点"活动至今已举办12年,旨在鼓励全民用语言记录生活(use language to record life),描述中国视野下的社会变迁(social changes)和世界万象。自11月20日活动启动以来,组织方共收到网友推荐字词数千条,网络推荐和投票点击量达2亿次。

[相关词汇]

热词 hot word

热门话题 hot topic

年度人物 Person of the Year

最具文化影响力人物 the most significant cultural influencer

4. 自动驾驶车辆

autonomous vehicle

请看例句:

China's first guideline on road tests of autonomous vehicles was released on Monday by local authorities in Beijing, signaling the country's determination to accelerate the development of the technology.

北京市相关部门18日发布了国内首份自动驾驶车辆道路测试细则,表明了我国加速发展这项技术的决心。

自动驾驶车辆(autonomous vehicle,self-driving vehicle)又称无人驾驶汽车或电脑驾驶汽车,是通过电脑系统操控实现无人驾驶的智能汽车。自动驾驶车辆靠人工智能(artificial intelligence, AI)、视觉计算(visual computing)、雷达(radar)、监控装置(monitoring devices)和全球定位系统协同合作,使电脑可以在没有任何人类进行主动操作的情况下,自动安全地操作机动车辆。

细则规定,在中国境内注册的独立法人单位(independent entities registered in China),可申请自动驾驶车辆临时上路行驶。自动驾驶车辆须具备自动、人工两种驾驶模式(self-driving and manual driving modes),可在两种模式间随时切换。为保证安全,测试车辆在上路测试前,必须在自动驾驶封闭测试场完成过不少于规定里程与规定测试环境的测试,测试结果经专家评审认定,具备条件才允许上路测试。

上路后,测试单位应购买不低于500万元的交通事故责任险(traffic accidents liability insurance)或提供不少于500万元的自动驾驶道路测试事故损害赔偿保函(letter of guarantee for damage compensation of self-driving road tests accidents)。针对测试驾驶员的要求,细则指出,测试主体应与测试驾驶员签订劳动合同;测试驾驶员应当持有机动车驾驶证(driving license),具有三年以上安全驾驶经历,无酒驾、毒驾记录(no record of drunk driving and driving under the influence of drugs)。

[相关词汇]

道路测试 road test

指定路段 designated road section

无人公交车 self-driving bus

无人机 drone

5. 税收改革

tax overhaul

请看例句:

US President Donald Trump secured the biggest win of his presidency Wednesday as Republicans passed the most sweeping tax overhaul since the 1980s.

美国总统特朗普20日赢得其任内最大的胜利,共和党人推动通过了自20世纪80年代以来最彻底的税收改革。

共和党克服来自民主党方面的反对意见(steamroll opposition from Democrats),最终通过了税改议案(tax bill),为特朗普锁定了自1月就职(take office)以来的首个重大立法胜利(major legislative victory)。此次税改的核心内容是大幅降低企业税,其标准所得税率(headline income tax rate)将从35%降至21%,使美国与发达国家的税率平均水平相当(bring the US into line with the developed-world average)。

该议案还将大幅调降富裕阶层的税负(slash taxes for the wealthy),并给予该国中产阶级幅度不一的临时减税政策。特朗普表示,美国人民将自2月开始看到税改法案的成果(begin seeing the results of the tax bill in February),届时他们的税后收入调整将开始体现在工资单上(adjustments to their after-tax income started appearing in pay checks)。

共和党人表示,该议案是自1986年里根推行的改革以来最重大的税收改革(the most substantial tax overhaul since Ronald Reagan's reforms of 1986),此轮税改对于重振经济,以及对明年11月的中期选举中保住该党对国会的控制均至关重要(be vital to energizing the economy and crucial to their chances of keeping control of Congress in midterm elections next November)。

[相关词汇]

减税 tax cut

税率 tax rate

替代性最低税 alternative minimum tax

经济数据 economic data