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油管人、巴马、脱欧:《牛津英语词典》又入新词

来源:  日期:2016-12-21 10:32  阅读 386 次  作者:   划词  进入论坛  投稿

《牛津英语词典》近日宣布增加1500个新词,2016年度英国最重大政治事件“英国脱欧”(Brexit)毫无悬念地位列其中。此外,来自社交媒体的新词“油管人”,和抢了婴儿潮一代风头的“时尚奶奶”,以及一些技术用语也被收录其中。

油管人、巴马、脱欧:《牛津英语词典》又入新词
油管人、巴马、脱欧:《牛津英语词典》又入新词

Brexit may mean Brexit to Theresa May, but the Oxford English Dictionary has come to the aid of those who wish for a less opaque definition.

Brexit一词也许只有在特里莎·梅眼里是“脱欧”的意思,对于许多人来说,该词的定义仍然模糊不清。近日《牛津英语词典》帮助大家释义解惑。

The word is among 1,500 new words added to the dictionary this week.

包括Brexit在内,《牛津英语词典》本星期共收录了1500个新词。

OED editors steered clear of political controversy by defining the process of Brexit rather than its consequences or implementation.

《牛津英语词典》的编辑们没有从脱欧产生的后果或最终的实现来下定义,而是对Brexit的过程进行定义,避开了该词背后的政治纷乱。

The definition reads: The (proposed) withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union, and the political process associated with it. Sometimes used specifically with reference to the referendum held in the UK on 23 June 2016, in which a majority of voters favoured withdrawal from the EU.

其定义如下:Brexit是指英国退出欧盟的行动(或计划),及其相关的政治进程。该词有时特指2016年6月23日的英国公投,当时大部分投票者都支持英国退出欧盟。

Fiona McPherson, senior editor on the OED, told the Guardian the word had been one of the fastest to move from coinage to definition and listing.

词典高级编辑菲奥纳•麦克弗森告诉《卫报》,近年来许多词语由新词快速上升为一种定义,并被列入词典,而Brexit就是其中速度最快的之一。

"It is very unusual for a word to take hold of the language so quickly", she said.

“一个词语能如此之快地进入语言系统实为少见,”她说道。

The word, she added, "had filled an empty space in our language, and the growing importance of the phenomenon it described."

她补充说,这个词语“填补了我们语言中的一个空缺,恰当表述了它背后日益重要的政治现象。”

She added: "It has gone from a new word a couple of years ago to being on the front pages of foreign language newspapers used, which shows it is now a global word, not just one used here."

她还补充说:“Brexit几年前还是一个新词,而现在频繁地在各大外刊头版上使用,这表明它已经是全球通用,绝不仅限于本国。”

As Grexit - Greece's hypothetical exit from the EU- has also been added to the OED this month, it is expected that should momentum grow for EU membership referendums elsewhere Nexit (Netherlands), Frexit (France) and Oexit (Austria) will follow Brexit into the dictionary.

Grexit是指希腊退出欧盟的假设,该词在本月也被收录进了词典。表达其他欧洲国家脱欧公投意图的词也预计将被收纳,如Nexit(芬兰脱欧)、Frexit(法国脱欧)、Oexit(奥地利脱欧)。

The influence of social media is visible in many of the new coinages.

人们能在许多新词中看到社交网络的影响。

YouTubers, defined as frequent user of the video-sharing website YouTube, especially someone who produces and appears in videos on the site is included in the dictionary for the first time.

YouTubers(油管人)首次被纳入词典,指频繁使用视频分享网站YouTube(油管)的用户,特别是自己制作视频并且出镜的人们。

Anyone who stands up to internet trolls can now legitimately call themselves an upstander - a person who speaks or acts in support of a cause, especially one who intervenes on behalf of a person being attacked or bullied.

如今,任何在网络上挺身而出打抱不平的人都可以堂堂正正地自称为upstander(挺身而出者)——指通过言语或行动来支持某项事业的人,尤指敢于站出来,代表遭受攻击和欺凌的人的利益,为其打抱不平。

A number of newly listed words and phrases have migrated from pop music, notably "get your freak on": defined as US slang (chiefly in African-American usage) 1) to engage in sexual activity, especially of an unconventional or uninhibited nature. 2) To dance, esp. in an uninhibited, wild, or exuberant fashion.

另一些新收录的词或短语来自于流行音乐,最出名的是“get your freak on”。它的定义为:美国俚语(主要用在非裔美国人中)1.参与性活动,尤指挑战传统、放纵不羁的性行为。2.跳舞,尤指无拘无束、动作狂野、热情洋溢的舞蹈。

The phrase gained prominence in 2001 as the title of a Missy Elliott song.

该短语是梅西•埃丽奥特的一首歌名,2001年开始流行了起来。

Singer Beyonce had a hand in the listing of Bama, originally a 1920s abbreviation of the US state of Alabama. It evolved to become slang for a person from the rural American south, but was reclaimed this year by the singer in Formation, a track from her latest album Lemonade.

Bama一词的收录得力于歌手碧昂斯,该词最早是20世纪20年代对美国阿拉巴马州的缩写,而后演化成了一个俚语,指来自美国南部乡下的人。但碧昂斯在今年的最新专辑《Lemonade》里的单曲《Formation》中重新使用了这个词。

The lyric says:

这段歌词是:

My daddy Alabama / Momma Louisiana / You mix that negro with that Creole / make a Texas Bama.

我爸是阿拉巴马人 /我妈是路易斯安纳人 / 他们生了我这个带着克里奥尔血统的黑人/ 让我成了住在德克萨斯的阿拉巴马人。

Words are admitted to the OED, McPherson said, according to their usage.

麦克弗森说,《牛津英语词典》会根据用法来收录词语。

"Once a word goes in, it doesn't come out. We have to have examples of it having passed into common usage or within a specialist area."

她说:“一个词语一旦被收入字典,就不会被删除。当它成为常用词或专业词后,我们必须举出与之相关的例子。”

Among the latest technical terms to have been added are examples of surfer lingo for wave types and surfing techniques.

此次添加的最新术语中,就包括了有关海浪种类和冲浪技巧的冲浪术语。

As usual, a raft of management speak makes it into the dictionary, led by out-strategise: a verb by to outmanoeuvre (an opponent, rival, etc.); to outdo in strategising.

与往常一样,一些管理话语也进入了词典,以“反策略”为首:动词,以计谋胜过;在策略上战胜(敌人,反对派);在策略上胜出。

Though many additions to the 829,000 words in the dictionary arise from young people and social media, others reflect the ageing population.

尽管新加入进《牛津英语词典》82.9万个词语的新词很多都来自于年轻人和社交媒体,但还有一些词语来自于老年人。

Leading the way for Baby Boomers is glam-ma: a glamorous grandmother, especially one who is comparatively young or fashion-conscious.

抢了Baby Boomer(婴儿潮时代出生的人)风头的是glam-ma(时尚奶奶):指风韵犹存的高龄女性,尤指相对年轻、有时尚气息的老奶奶。

转贴于:24EN.COM

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