名    词
在中考单项选择试题中,除了时态,名词的考查频率也较高。一般考查以下几点:
一、    可数名词与不可数名词
在可数名词与不可数名词上一般出现这样几类,(1)分辨是哪一类名词,并根据结论做选择。(2)可数名词复数的不规则变化。(3)不可数名词的量化表达。所以,考生首先要能够明确哪些是可数名词,哪些是不可数名词。其次,还要知道可数名词的复数的变化规则。可数名词的变化规则一般是在单词后面加-s 或-es,如:
1desk---desks    bed---beds   piano---pianos
             hat---hats       bag---bags   photo---photos
        2bus---buses   box---boxes 
watch---watches   brush---brushes
3tomato---tomatoes     potato---potatoes
hero---heroes         Negro---Negroes
       4 leaf---leaves          knife---knives
5baby---babies          family---families
另外,还要记住一些特殊的名词的变化形式,如:
Chinese---Chinese     Japanese---Japanese
Englishman---Englishmen   Frenchman---Frenchmen
Russian---Russians   American---Americans  
German --- Germans
child---children     foot---feet      
man---men        woman---women
tooth---teeth            goose --- geese
deer---deer        sheep---sheep
还要掌握不可数名词的量化表达有: a piece of、a bag of、a bottle of、a cup of、a glass of
另外,大家应注意:单数集合名词作主语时谓语动词“数的”变化:单数集合名词如class, police, family, school, group, team等。尽管形式上是单数,意义上都是复数,因此,一般要与复数谓语动词连用,例如:
Class Five have a foreign friend.
五班有一位外国朋友。(这里的五班指五班的同学的。)
His family are good to me.  他的家人对我很好。(很显然,这里的family指家庭成员。)当上述集合名词着重指“整体”时, 意义上则是单数,因此,要与单数谓语动词连用。例如,
Our school team often plays well in our city. 
我们的校队经常在我们市踢得很好。(这里的team 指整个队,但意义上仍为单数,故谓语动词用plays.
二、    名词所有格
名词所有格有两种形式:一是加’s,一种是用of来表示。一般情况下,指某人的某物用’s表示,而指某物的什么用of 短语来表示。另外,要注意凡是以s结尾的名词或规则名词的复数,不能直接加’s,而应该加-’即可。例如,boys’ clothes   girls’ dresses。 不过,注意例外情况,例如, the boss’s handwriting,其中the boss’s 的-’s不可省略。因为在英语中,如果以-s 或-ss 结尾的名词不是复数复数形式,那么其名词所有格仍加-‘s。那么你会说“琼斯的小汽车”吗?对,Jones’s car。
下面我们来做一部分习题。
1.    June 1st is ___ Day.
A. Child’s   B. Childs’   C. Childrens’   D. Children’s
答案:D
2.    I need ___ paper, Mum. I want to write ___ letter to my English teacher.
A. any, some   B. some, a   C. a, some   D. some,any
答案:B
3.    There are two ___ and three ___ on the table.
A. knifes, forks   B. knifes, fork   C. knives, forkes   D. knives, forks
答案:D
4.    We have got a lot of___ today.
A. newspaper to read   B. homework to do   C. homeworks to do
D. book to read
答案:B
5.    We could see __ children and hear ___ noise in the park.
A. many, many   B. much, much   C. many, much  D. much, many
答案:C
6.    Will you pass me ___?
A. a few pieces of chalk   B. a few chalks  C. a few of chalks  
D. some chalks
答案:A
7.    ___ has been invited to the dancing party.
A. A friend of her   B. A friend of hers   C. Friends of hers  
D. Friends of her
答案:B
下面请大家自己练习一下。
1.    September 10th is ___ Day.
A. the Teacher   B. Teachers’   C. Teacher   D. Teacher’s
答案:B
2.    ---Can I help you, sir?
---I’d like to have 100___. I want the students to draw pictures on them.
A. piece of paper   B. pieces of paper   C. papers  D. paper
答案:B
3.    ---Would you like ___ milk, please?
---No, thank you. I still have some.
A. some more   B. an   C. a little of   D. all
答案:A
4.    ___ the old woman is in!
A. What good health   B. How a good health   C. What a good health   D. How good health
答案:A
①    What + a(n) + 形容词 + 单数名词 + 主语 + 谓语!
②    What + 形容词 + 复数名词 + 主语 + 谓语!
③    What + 形容词 + 不可数名词 + 主语 + 谓语!
④    How + 形容词/副词 + 主语 + 谓语!
⑤    How + 形容词 + a(n) + 名词 + 主语 + 谓语!
⑥     How + 主语 + 谓语!
5.    I’m going to help ___ with ___ English.
A. a friend of Nancy, hers   B. a friend of Nancy’s, her  
C. a friend of Nancy’s, hers   D. a friend of Nancy, her
答案:B
6.    The two desks here are ___. You may use the desk over there.
A. Mary and Jane   B. Marys and Janes  C. Mary and Jane’s
D. Mary’s and Jane’s
答案:D

形容词和副词
在中考单项选择中形容词也占一定比例,一般考查有关形容词或副词的一些搭配,但绝大部分考查形容词与副词的比较级和最高级。
一、    形容词和副词的比较级和最高级
①一般的比较级和最高级在形容词或副词后加-er或-est,如:small --- smaller --- smallest
② 以不发音-e结尾的形容词或副词直接加 –r或 –st,如
large --- largest --- largest
③ 重读闭音节词尾是一个辅音字母的,需双写该辅音字母,再加-er或-est。
④ 以辅音字母加 y 结尾的形容词和副词,把“y”变“i”,再加 –er或-est.
busy---busier---busiest
happy---happier---happiest
但一些双音节及多音节形容词或副词前要加more和most,如:
slowly --- more slowly --- most slowly
difficult---more difficult---most difficult
beautiful---more beautiful---most beautiful
但还有一些不规则的变化:
good / well---better---best
many---more---most
bad / ill / badly ---worse---worst
little---less---least
far --- farther / further --- farther / furthest
二、    形容词和副词的等比句型
①as…as… 和……一样
I’m as tall as you.
② not as(so)…as 不和…… 一样(在否定句中常用so 来代替as)如,
I can’t run so fast as you.
另外as…as possible 为固定结构,如,as soon as possible, as quickly as possible 等。
在以上两个句型中形容词或副词一定要用原级。
三、形容词和副词的其它句型还有:
    ① 形容词/ 副词 比较级 + than 句型 ,在than 后面的人称代词  用主语和宾语均可。
     He is older than I / me.
    但是如果人称代词后有动词时,则只能用主格形式。如,
     Tom found more red leaves than I did.
② “the + 比较级, the + 比较级” 结构表示两个变化一起发生。如, The more you learn, the more you’ll know.
③ “more and more”结构(指两个形容词比较级用and 连接)表示持续不断的变化。 如: I’m getting thinner and thinner.
四、修饰形容词和副词的比较级的副词要用much, a lot, a little, a bit, far等,very不能和比较级连用。如:
   The blouse I bought yesterday is a little less expensive.
昨天我买的衬衣比较便宜。
To play basketball is far more enjoyable to the boy.
打篮球对于男孩子来说要有趣得多。
五、形容词的一些搭配,如:
be glad / happy/ pleased to do 很高兴做某事
be sorry to do 很抱歉,很遗憾做某事
be sure to do 一定/相信会做某事
be ready to do 准备好做某事,乐于做某事
get ready to do 为……做好准备 等等。
下面我们来看一些例题。
1.    The Yellow River is one of ___ in China.
A. the longest rivers   B. the longer river   C. the longest river
D. the long river
答案:A
2.  Does he speak Chinese ___ his brother?
   A. as better as   B. as good as  C. as well as   D. best than
答案:C
3. Which shirt do you like ___, the white one or the blue one?
   A. better   B. good   C. best   D. much
答案:A
4. I don’t feel ___ to go to work today. I’m ill.
   A. good enough   B. well enough   C. enough well   D. enough good
答案:B
5. Mary would like to spend ___ days on her research.
A. a little more   B. a little   C. a few more   D. much more
答案:C
下面请大家自己做以下练习。
1.    Be quiet, class! I have ___ to tell you.
A. important anything   B. important something
C. anything important   D. something important
答案:D
2.    This picture book is not ___ that one.
A. so interesting as   B. so interesting than   C. as interesting than
D. interesting as
答案:A
3.    This article is ___ than that one.
A. much easier   B. more easier   c. much more easier   D. more easy
答案:A
4.    The Changjiang River is ___ river in China.
A. long   B. longest   C. the longest   D. longer
答案:C
5.    You must keep your room ___  and tidy.
A. to clean   B. cleaning   C. clean   D. cleaned
答案:C

    上面我们已经讲了动词、名词、形容词和副词的用法。

中考中当然也会涉及到其他诸如代词、数词、介词、和连词等的用法。
下面我就简单提醒大家每类词需注意的地方。

1.    代词
同学们需掌握以下不定代词:
all, each, both, either, neither, one, none, little, few, many, much, other, another, some, any, no以及由some, any, no, every构成的合成词如 nobody等,并注意不定代词的定语后置,如something English
2.    数词
同学们需要记住一些特殊拼写的序数词。
如:第1--- first   第2--- second 第3--- third 第5--- fifth 第9--- ninth
第12--- twelfth  第20--- twentieth
   另外需要记住以下短语:
hundreds of 数以百计
thousands of 数以千计
tens of thousands of 数以万计
several millions of好几百万
  但表示确切的百或千时不能用复数形式,如:
ten thousand
three million
3.    介词的考察内容主要是介词短语,特别是那些有固定搭配和固定用法的介词短语。这类短语比较多,这里我不再一一赘述,大家可以看《初中英语复习指导》第204页至208页上的词组。但我要特别提几个以前旧教材所没有的短语,请大家注意。
如, speak highly of高度赞扬
regard… as …视为,把……看做……
make a contribution to doing sth 为……做贡献
4.    连词
同学们需要特别记忆以下连词或连词短语:
neither…nor…
either…or…
not only…but also…
both…and…
前三个短语引导主语时,谓语动词需遵循就近原则。
如,  Neither you nor I am right. 你和我都不正确。
Either Lucy or Lily is going there.  不是Lucy就是Lily要去那儿。
   那么both…and…连接主语时,谓语动词要用复数形式。
   如, Both Lucy and Lily are going there.
句子的种类

1.应特别注意掌握的简单句
   有介词的特殊疑问句
   在特殊问句中,作为介词宾语的疑问代词可以与介词分离,放在句首,而把介词放在句尾。如,
     Whom do you travel with?
当然,也可以把介词放在句首。总之,不要把介词丢掉。
有插入语的特殊疑问句
在特殊问句中,经常可以看到这样的句子:
Where do you think they may go?
    其中,do you think 是疑问式插入语,其余部分是think的宾语从句。注意,疑问式插入语同句子的其余部分不用逗号分开。疑问式插入语还有do you hope, do you guess 等。
在肯定句中也有插入语。如:
That man, I guess, is neither a policeman nor a soldier.
在肯定句的插入语要用逗号与句子的其他部分分开。去掉插入语,该句子仍然是个完整的句子。
    You’d better (not)… (do sth.) 这个说法常用于提出“劝告,建议,告戒”。 比较委婉的有礼貌的说法是 Would you like …? 或 What about (doing)…?。 如,
It’s too dark. You’d better leave at once.
I’m afraid (that) …
    I’m afraid (that) I can’t go with you today.
常用来委婉地表示自己的看法或预料一件令人不悦的事情。
2.并列句
   并列句的考查重点是并列连词。并列连词有and, or, but, both… and, neither… nor, either… or, not only… but also…等。
3.复合句
    复合句考查的主要内容是宾语从句、状语从句和定语从句。
① 宾语从句
宾语从句的考查要点是:时态的呼应、人称的一致、词序等。
A.宾语从句的连接词:
宾语从句本身是叙述句是,用that 引导。
He said (that) he would leave on March 12 next weeek.
宾语从句本身是特殊疑问句时,用疑问词引导。
Do you know where we can find our teacher?
宾语从句本身是一般疑问句时,用if 或whether引导。
I don’t know if / whether he has done that.
B. 宾语从句与主句时态的呼应。
主句谓语是现在时和将来时的时候,宾语从句的动词时态不受影响。如,It is said that the panda was sent to America last month.
主句是过去时态,从句谓语要做适当调整:
a)    由现在时调整为过去时。
I didn’t know you were also here.
b)    由将来时调整为过去将来时
He said that he would go to Beijing the next week.
c)    过去时态多数不受影响,但“一般过去时”常调整为“过去完成时”,尤其是从句中有before, since 一类的时间状语时,多调整为“过去完成时”如:
She said she had worked at this school before her father came to this city.
② 状语从句。
状语从句有时间状语从句(常由when, while, before, after, until, as soon as等词引导)、地点状语从句(常有where 引导)、原因状语从句(常有because, since, as 引导,这三词所表达的语气由because到as逐渐减弱,由why提出的问题必须用because 来回答), 条件状语从句(常由if引导)、结果状语从句(常由such … that…, so…that…, so that等引导 )、让步状语从句(常由though, although引导)。
③另外,今年新加了一个定语从句,其考查内容主要是正确使用关系代词{who(指人)、that(指人或物)、which(指物)} , etc. 定语从句一般紧跟在修饰词的后面,如:
She is the person who I want to see. 她就是我想见到的人。
有时,为了使句子平衡,也可把定语从句与所修饰词分开。同学们还记得这样一句话吗?Then a screen came up that read, “Congratulations!” 这是第三册第54课中的一个句子。
下面我们来看一些例子:
1.    The traveller was ___ tired that she couldn’t walk on.
A. so  B. very   C. too   D. quite
答案:A
2.    Do you know ___ ten years ago?
A. where does he live   B. where he lives   C. where did he live  
D. where he lived
答案:D
3.    He didn’t go home ___ he finished the work.
A. since   B. if   C. because   D. until
答案:D
4.    I was reading the newspaper ___ I heard a loud shout outside.
A. while   B. when   C. though   D. as
答案:B
5.    I don’t know the man ___ is cleaning the door.
A. that   B. where   C. what   D. who
答案:D
好,接下来大家自己做以下练习。
1.    I didn’t remember ___ the woman before.
A. where I had seen   B. where I have seen   C. where had I seen
D. where have I seen
答案:A
2.    It was raining heavily ___ we got to Paris.
A. while   B. if   C. when   D. because
答案:C
3.    The plane hasn’t arrived. Can you tell me ___?
A. what time is the plane late   B. why is the plane late
C. why the plane is late    D. what time the plane is late
答案:C
4.    I don’t know if ___tomorrow?
A. it doesn’t rain   B. the rain will stops   C. the rains won’t stop
D. it won’t rain
答案:D