1. The key to control over the Eurasian steppes lay in the nomad’s ability to use the horse both as a means of transport but also as an effective military tool.
(A) but also as
(B) or as
(C) and as
(D) or
(E) and also

2. Judge Lois Forer’s study asks why do some litigants have a preferred status over others in the use of a public resource, the courts, which in theory are available to all but in fact are unequally distributed among rich and poor.
(A) do some litigants have a preferred status over others in the use of a public resource, the courts, which in theory are available to all but in fact are unequally distributed among
(B) some litigants have a preferred status over others in the use of a public resource, the courts, which in theory are available to all but in fact are unequally distributed between
(C) do some litigants have a preferred status over another in the use of a public resource, the courts, in theory available to all but in fact are unequally distributed among
(D) some litigants have a preferred status to another in the use of a public resource, the courts, in theory available to all but in fact not equally distributed between
(E) does one litigant have a preferred status over the other in the use of a public resource, the courts, in theory available to all but in fact they are not equally distributed among

3. As litigation grows more complex, the need that experts explain technical issues becomes more apparent.
(A) that experts explain technical issues becomes
(B) for experts to explain technical issues became
(C) for experts to explain technical issues becomes
(D) that technical issues be explained by experts became
(E) that there be explanations of technical issues by experts has become

4. Last spring a Colorado health department survey of 72 playgrounds in private child-care centers found unsafe conditions in 95 percent of them and they ranged from splinters to equipment near collapse.
(A) unsafe conditions in 95 percent of them and they ranged
(B) conditions in 95 percent were unsafe and ranging
(C) the ranging of unsafe conditions in 95 percent of them to be
(D) that 95 percent had unsafe conditions ranging
(E) that 95 percent of them had conditions that were unsafe; the range was

5. The expected rise in the price of oil could be a serious impact to industrialized nations and severely diminish the possibility to have an economy free of inflation.
(A) be a serious impact to industrialized nations and severely diminish the possibility to have
(B) seriously impact on industrialized nations and severely impede the possibility to have
(C) seriously impact on industrialized nations and severely impede the possibility of having
(D) have a serious impact on industrialized nations and severely impede the possibility to have
(E) have a serious impact on industrialized nations and severely diminish the possibility of having

6. Recent excavations suggest that the ancient peoples of the Italian peninsula merged the cult of Damia—a goddess of fertility and the harvest—with Venus.
(A) with Venus
(B) and Venus
(C) with that of Venus
(D) and Venus’
(E) and Venus’ cult

7. Since the 1930’s aircraft manufacturers have tried to build airplanes with frictionless wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly that the air passing over them would not become turbulent.
(A) wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly
(B) wings, wings so smooth and so perfectly shaped
(C) wings that are shaped so smooth and perfect
(D) wings, shaped in such a smooth and perfect manner
(E) wings, wings having been shaped smoothly and perfectly so

8. Some biographers have not only disputed the common notion that Edgar Allan Poe drank to excess but also questioned whether he drank at all.
(A) have not only disputed the common notion that Edgar Allan Poe drank to excess but also questioned whether he drank
(B) not only have disputed the common notion that Edgar Allan Poe drank to excess but also over whether he drank
(C) have disputed not only the common notion that Edgar Allan Poe drank to excess but also whether he may not have drunk
(D) not only have disputed the common notion that Edgar Allan Poe drank to excess but also questioned whether or not he had drunk
(E) have disputed the common notion not only that Edgar Allan Poe drank to excess but also questioned whether he may not have drunk

9. According to Interstudy, a nonprofit organization that studies health maintenance organizations (HMO’s), they estimate that, in comparison to last year, when only 36 percent of the nation’s 607 HMO’s was profitable, this year 73 percent will be.
(A) they estimate that, in comparison to last year, when only 36 percent of the nation’s 607 HMO’s was profitable, this year 73 percent will be
(B) compared to only 36 percent of the nation’s 607 HMO’s being profitable last year, they estimate 73 percent would be this year
(C) only 36 percent of the nation’s 607 HMO’s were profitable last year; it estimates that this year 73 percent will be
(D) it estimates 73 percent of the nation’s 607 HMO’s would be profitable this year; last year that was only 36 percent
(E) only 36 percent of the nation’s 607 HMO’s last year were profitable, whereas they estimate it this year to be 73 percent

10. The visiting pharmacologists concluded that the present amalgam of Chinese and Western medicine is probably as good, or better than, any system that might be devised for the patients who are treated at the Nan Kai hospital in Tian-jing.
(A) as good, or better than, any system that might be devised for the patients who are
(B) as good, or better, than any system that might be devised for patients being
(C) as good, or better than, any system that might be devised for patients which are being
(D) good as, or even better than, any other system that may be devised for the patients who are
(E) as good as, or better than, any other system that might be devised for the patients

11. One of four babies are now born to mothers aged thirty years or more, compared with just one of six born in 1975.
(A) of four babies are now born to mothers aged thirty years or more, compared with just one of six born
(B) of four babies is now born to a mother whose age is thirty or older, compared to just one of six babies who were born
(C) baby in four are now born to mothers aged thirty or older, compared to just one in six
(D) baby in four is now born to a mother aged thirty or older, compared with just one in six
(E) baby in four is now born to mothers aged thirty years or more, compared to just one in six

12. School desegregation has worked well in Buffalo, New York, in part because parents and teachers were given major roles in designing the city’s magnet schools, because extra federal funds were allocated to make each school unique, and because the federal judge enforced desegregation orders.
(A) because extra federal funds were allocated to make each school unique
(B) because of the allocation of extra federal funds that make each school unique
(C) because each school is made unique by allocating it extra federal funds
(D) extra federal funds were allocated in order to make each school unique
(E) extra federal funds were allocated for making each school unique

13. Among the cossacks, vegetable farming was once so despised that it was forbidden on pain of death.
(A) so despised that it was
(B) so despised to be
(C) so despised it had been
(D) despised enough that it was
(E) despised enough as to be