Most animals find a home for themselves by taking shelter in caves, trees, underground, or hollows. Some opt for parasitic arrangements. But, we also know of certain animals like the birds, ants, bees etc. that make for themselves private places like nests, hives or colonies to rest, mate and nurture offspring. There are also some animals that build themselves elaborate living places, and are, in fact, some of the best architects. So let are look at some of the best animal architects and their constructions.

大多数动物在洞穴、树木、地下或洞穴中寻找栖身之所。一些人选择寄生的安排。但是,我们也知道某些动物,比如鸟类、蚂蚁、蜜蜂等,它们为自己的巢穴、蜂巢、蜂巢等提供了休息、交配和养育后代的机会。也有一些动物为自己建造精致的生活场所,事实上,它们是一些最好的建筑师。让我们来看看一些最好的动物建筑师和他们的建筑。

10. Social weaver

Social weaver

10 Best Animal Architects
This bird is found in South Africa, as well as Namibia and Botswana. They build permanent communal nests on tall trees or other erect objects like telephone poles with sticks and grass. The nests are the largest built by any bird, and are capable of housing several generations each of as many as a hundred pairs of birds. There are many separate rooms. The central chambers can retain heat and are for night-time roosting, while the outer ones are for daytime shade, as the temperature maintained can be about 7-8°C, when it is about 16-33°C outside. These sky-condominiums look like haystacks, with spiky straws for security system at the entrances which are at the bottom.

这种鸟分布在南非、纳米比亚和博茨瓦纳。他们在高大的树木或其他竖立的物体上建立永久的公共巢穴,比如用树枝和草做的电线杆。鸟巢是任何鸟类建造的最大的巢,它能容纳数代人,每只鸟多达一百对鸟。有许多独立的房间。中央室可以保留热量,夜间栖息,虽然白天帘外的是,当温度可以保持约7 - 8°C,当它是关于16-33°C。这些摩天大楼看起来就像干草堆,在底部的入口处有一个安全系统的尖尖的吸管。

9. Weaver ant/ Leaf-Curling Spider

织叶蚁/ Leaf-Curling蜘蛛

10 Best Animal Architects
Generally, ants are known to build colonies inside anthills, and one of the most remarkable anthills is made by the European red wood ants who build interlinked mounds to switch between. But, the weaver ant of Central Africa and South-East Asia has gained ecological success by building capacious nests from living leaves which are held together by their larval silk. They put together concerted efforts as they build large colonies. The nests are impermeable to water. Something similar is done by the leaf-curling spider of Australia, except it uses a dead leaf, and curls it to form a cosy shelter hung in the centre of the web. They in in pairs at an early age here, and later use it as a nursery.

一般来说,蚂蚁是在蚁丘内部建造蚁群的,而最显著的蚁丘之一是欧洲红木蚁建造的,它们之间建立了相互联系的土丘。但是,非洲中部和东南亚的编织蚁通过在它们的幼虫的丝质的叶子上筑巢,从而获得了生态上的成功。他们在建造大型殖民地时共同努力。这些巢是不透水的。澳大利亚的叶卷蜘蛛也做了类似的事情,只不过它用的是一片枯叶,把它卷成一个舒适的庇护所,挂在网络的中央。他们在很小的时候就在一起,后来把它用作托儿所。

8. Vogelkop Bowerbird

Vogelkop园丁鸟

10 Best Animal Architects
The bowerbird lives in Vogelkop Peninsula of Indonesia. Using grass and sticks, the male bowerbirds build bowers on the ground, which look like small pygmy huts. These bowers are their way to attract female mates. Building the bowers is not all: they also design the interiors by artistically arranging berries, flowers, beetles and other eye-catching ornamental objects, as each bird makes the best effort to outdo his neighbour. The female birds visit the nests, and if they like what they see, they mate with the host. The female birds probably do so to just check the capability and sense of responsibility of the male, since these bowers play no par in nesting and raising of the young.

鲍比鸟生活在印度尼西亚的Vogelkop半岛。雄性园丁鸟用草和树枝在地上筑巢,它们看起来就像小矮人的小屋。这些凉亭是他们吸引女性伴侣的方式。建造除草机并不是全部:他们还通过艺术地安排浆果、花、甲虫和其他引人注目的装饰物来设计内部装饰,因为每只鸟都尽最大的努力去超越他的邻居。雌鸟会去鸟巢,如果它们喜欢它们所看到的,它们就会和主人交配。雌鸟可能这样做只是为了检查雄性的能力和责任感,因为这些鼓吹者在筑巢和哺育幼鸟方面没有任何作用。

7. Cathedral termite

大教堂白蚁

10 Best Animal Architects
The termites that live in our houses are the lazy little pests, but, out in the wilderness of Australia's Northwest Territory live the self-sufficient Cathedral termites. Using mud, chewed wood, their own saliva and feces, they build self-sustaining mounds towering up to 30 feet, which are centrally air-conditioned, enhanced by the north-to-south construction and tunnels that run throughout the mound for temperature and air regulation. Water also collects as condensation. Beneath the sprawling megacity of skyscrapers, the underground colony spreads over acres, and is complete with fungi gardens where plant matter is cultivated. There are even small motel-rooms, for mating.

住在我们房子里的白蚁是懒惰的小害虫,但是,在澳大利亚西北地区的荒野里,生活着自给自足的大教堂白蚁。他们用泥土、咀嚼的木头、自己的唾液和粪便,建造了30英尺高的自养土堆,这些土堆是中央空调的,由北至南的建筑和贯穿土堆的隧道来加强温度和空气调节。水也是凝结的。在巨大的摩天大楼下,地下的菌落散布在数英亩的土地上,并与种植植物的真菌花园融为一体。甚至还有小型的房间,用于交配。

6. Trapdoor Spider

活板门蜘蛛

Best Animal Architects
Spiders are known for making their webs, and some of them definitely go an extra mile, like the leaf-curling spider, or the isolated cases in the humid areas of Texas or Canada where spider communities build webs together over many hectares of land. But the trapdoor spiders are different. They live underground, in burrows that they dig out. Using soil, vegetation and silk, they construct doors for their houses. These doors can open and close at hinges which they make out of spider silk. Thus, the door is completely hidden when sealed, making it the perfect trapdoor. They make a complex system tripwires with their webbing, to attack and trap unsuspecting victims.

蜘蛛以织网而闻名,其中一些蜘蛛肯定会多走一英里,比如叶卷蜘蛛,或者是德克萨斯州或加拿大潮湿地区的孤立案例,那里的蜘蛛社区在许多公顷的土地上结成网。但是,这些蜘蛛门的蜘蛛是不同的。他们住在地下,在洞穴里挖出来。他们用泥土、植物和丝绸为他们的房子建造门。这些门可以在铰链上打开和关闭,它们是用蜘蛛丝做的。因此,当密封的时候,门是完全隐藏的,使它成为完美的暗门。他们用他们的网络来制造一个复杂的系统,攻击和诱捕毫无防备的受害者。

5. Baya weaver/ Montezuma Oropendola

Baya韦弗/ Montezuma Oropendola

10 Best Animal Architects
The baya weaverbird is found in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. It is well-known for its elegant retort-shaped hanging nest, built from leaves in colonies. But isolated nests are not unusual. Far away in the Caribbean coastal lowlands, the Montezuma Oropendola, a New World tropical icterid bird, builds a similar kind of nest out of grass and small vines, hanging from trees in colonies of about 30 birds. They build their nest in high trees in the forest canopy, edges or plantations, unlike the baya weaverbirds whose nests are built on thorny trees, near or over water.

在印度次大陆和东南亚发现了贝亚威伯鸟。它以其优雅的回嘴式悬挂巢穴而闻名,它是由殖民地的树叶建成的。但孤立的巢穴并不少见。在遥远的加勒比沿海低地,一个名为蒙特祖玛(Montezuma Oropendola)的新世界热带icterid鸟类,在草地和小葡萄藤上建造了一种类似的巢穴,在大约30只鸟的聚居地悬挂在树上。它们在森林树冠、边缘或种植园的高大树木中筑巢,不像那些巢是建在多刺的树上、附近或水面上的巴耶威鸟(baya weaverbirds)。

4. Paper wasp

胡蜂

10 Best Animal Architects
While most wasps do not build nests or opt for parasitic arrangements, the paper wasps build elegant nests. The different species use materials like fibers of chewed plants, dead wood or stems, to build their nests with. The materials are bound together with resin and their own saliva or silk. Some species also use mud. The nests have open combs with cells, like in the beehives. The internal honeycomb tiers have a paper wrapping that surrounds them. The nests also have a petiole or constricted stalk, to anchor the nest. The wasps spread a chemical that they secrete around the base of the anchor to repel ants and prevent loss of eggs. The nests are usually built in sheltered areas.

虽然大多数黄蜂不会筑巢,也不会选择寄生的安排,但它们会建造优雅的巢穴。不同的物种会用咀嚼过的植物纤维、枯木或茎干等材料来筑巢。这些材料用树脂和他们自己的唾液或丝绸粘合在一起。一些物种也使用泥土。蜂巢里有蜂巢,就像蜂巢里的蜂巢一样。内部的蜂巢层有一个纸包裹着它们。巢也有叶柄或收缩的茎,以固定鸟巢。黄蜂将其分泌的一种化学物质散布在锚的底部,以驱赶蚂蚁,防止虫卵的丢失。巢通常建在有遮蔽的地方。

3. Red Ovenbird/ Swallows

红灶巢鸟/燕子

10 Best Animal Architects
The Rufous hornero or red ovenbird uses mud or dung as the main material to build earthen bowls, constructed on top of high tree limbs, poles, posts, etc., where these get baked by the sun, creating a hardened shelter where the birds lay eggs. The nests face away from prevailing winds. Thus, these are perfect for the incubation of eggs, and are a home for the nestlings and their parents in all kinds of weather. Many species of swallows, too, build mud nests. Swallow nests can also be made out of the birds' saliva. These nests, built in colonies, are considered delicacy by some people. The evolution of nest construction is thought to be associated with the clutch size of a swallow species.

红鸟或红鸟用泥土或粪便作为主要材料,在高高的树枝、杆子、柱子上建造陶土碗。在这些地方,它们被太阳烤熟,形成了一个坚硬的避难所,鸟类在那里产卵。这些巢穴面对着盛行的风。因此,这些都是孵蛋的好地方,也是雏鸟和它们的父母在各种天气里的家。许多种类的燕子也在筑巢。燕窝也可以由鸟的唾液制成。这些在殖民地建造的巢穴被一些人认为是美味佳肴。巢的构造演化被认为与一种燕子的离合器大小有关。

2. Mud Dauber

泥涂抹工具

10 Best Animal Architects
Mud daubers build themselves elegant nests out of mud, and sometimes, their own vomit. The organ pipe mud dauber's nest is in the shape of a cylindrical tube, like an organ pipe or pan flute, and these are built on the horizontal or vertical faces of bridges, walls, cliffs, shelter cliffs, or other such structures, while the black and yellow mud dauber nest may be simple, one-celled and urn-shaped, which are then clumped together and plastered with mud. The mud dauber's den contains many cells, not just to house the eggs but also to serve as asylums to keep the prisoners, i.e. spiders, in a paralyzed state so that they cannot escape, and can be devoured by the wasps and their larvae.

泥人用泥土建造优雅的巢穴,有时,他们自己的呕吐物。风琴管泥浆的画匠的巢在圆柱管的形状,像一个风琴管或排萧,这些是建立在水平或垂直的桥梁,墙壁,悬崖,悬崖,或其他类似的结构,而黑色和黄色泥浆的画匠巢可能简单,单细胞的瓮状,然后成群在一起,贴满了泥浆。泥涂抹的巢穴包含了许多细胞,不仅是用来存放鸡蛋,还可以作为避难所,让囚犯,即蜘蛛,处于瘫痪状态,使它们无法逃脱,并能被黄蜂和它们的幼虫吃掉。

1. Caddisfly

毛翅蝇

10 Best Animal Architects
The Caddisfly is an underwater architect of its own kind. In the larva state, the immature caddisflies toil hard in streams, ponds and other fresh-water bodies they inhabit, and cover themselves in bits of sand, plants or anything they find, to build an array of cases and retreats. It secretes a sticky silk from its modified salivary glands, which it uses to spin together pebbles, sands, and other detritus. The larva grows in the ornate, unique make-shift home, in a protected environment that offers camouflage and stability in currents, and also ensures efficiency in feeding and respiration. Some build net-like chambers in front of the retreat, spread silken mazes, etc. to catch food.

Caddisfly是它自己的水下建筑师。在幼虫状态下,不成熟的尸体在溪流、池塘和其他它们栖息的淡水水体中辛勤劳作,并把自己埋在沙子、植物或任何他们发现的地方,以建造一系列的箱子和静物。它分泌一种来自其改良的唾液腺的粘丝,它用来将鹅卵石、沙子和其他碎屑混合在一起。幼虫生长在华丽的,独特的临时住所,在一个保护的环境中,提供了伪装和稳定的电流,同时也保证了喂养和呼吸的效率。一些在静修前建网状的房间,铺上丝质迷宫等以捕捉食物。

There a few other animals that deserve to be mentioned for their architectural skills. Beavers, for instance, are excellent woodworkers and weather-proofers, and build massive dams to create still ponds and flood woodland areas to a desired depth, and the dams are complete with submerged entrances to the internal winter lodges, kept warm and safe with coats of mud. The ants, too, are some of the best animal architects, capable of building elaborate ant colonies underground, without a blueprint or any light, and display amazing skill in gauging depth from the surface. Gophers and prairie dogs build burrows that are actually called towns, since they spread across hundreds of acres, housing thousands of rodents. Honeybees have their entire lives revolving around their beehives made of wax, where there are perfectly hexagonal cells that together form the combs to store honey and breed the young. The trapdoor spider, which lives underground, manages to build a door for its house which opens and closes at the hinge made of spider silk, and they also have a complex system of tripwires to pounce upon unsuspecting preys. There are many such masterminds at work all the time in the nature, and though we humans might have mastered the art of architecture with science, it is safe to say that the animals learnt to hang out in safe and cosy housing estates and farmed their own resources in the colonies, thus making great contribution to the environment and ecology in the process, when the humans were still in the first stages of figuring it all out for themselves.

还有一些其他的动物值得被提及,因为它们的建筑技巧。例如,海狸是优秀的木工和防水材料,建造大量的水坝来建造仍在池塘和洪水的林地区域,以达到想要的深度,而大坝则完全淹没在内部的冬季斜坡上,保持温暖和安全,覆盖着泥土。蚂蚁也是最好的动物建筑师之一,能够在地下建造复杂的蚁群,没有蓝图或任何光线,并且在测量深度上显示出惊人的技能。Gophers和草原土拨鼠建造的洞穴实际上被称为城镇,因为它们散布在数百英亩的土地上,居住着成千上万的啮齿动物。蜜蜂的整个生命周期都是围绕蜂蜡制成的蜂箱,那里有完美的六角形细胞,它们共同组成了蜂巢,储存蜂蜜,繁殖后代。住在地下的trapdoor蜘蛛,成功地为它的房子建造了一扇门,它可以在蜘蛛丝的铰链上打开和关闭,而且它们还有一套复杂的绊网系统,可以在毫无察觉的前提下突袭。在工作中有很多这样的聪明人在自然界中,尽管我们人类可能掌握了建筑的艺术与科学,可以肯定地说,动物学会在安全、舒适的住宅小区和耕种自己的资源在殖民地,从而使巨大的贡献的环境和生态过程,当人类还在第一阶段的计算出来。