Everyone recognizes the Taj Mahal as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. The mausoleum is a glorious structure, built of white marble, and symbolizes purity, love and pain, like no other architecture does. Nobel Laureate Rabindranath Tagore called the Taj Mahal “a tear drop on the cheek of time.” The Taj Mahal, built in Agra, India, has many stories revolving around it. Let us look at some of the interesting facts about Taj Mahal.

每个人都承认泰姬陵是世界七大奇迹之一。陵墓是一座宏伟的建筑,由白色大理石建造而成,象征着纯洁、爱和痛苦,就像其他建筑一样。诺贝尔奖得主泰戈尔(Rabindranath Tagore)称泰姬陵是“时间的脸颊上的一滴眼泪”。位于印度阿格拉的泰姬陵有很多故事围绕它旋转。让我们来看看一些关于泰姬陵的有趣事实。

1. Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal

沙贾汗和穆塔兹·玛哈尔。

Shah Jahan and Mumtaz
Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan had the Taj Mahal built in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal, whom he held precious. Mumtaz Mahal was giving birth to the fourteenth child of the emperor, and she died in the process. This was in 1631. Legend has it that Shah Jahan, who considered his empress an integral part of his life, was broken after her death, and within just a few months, his hair and beard grew snow white, such was the terrible impact of the demise upon him.

莫卧儿王朝的皇帝沙贾汗(Shah Jahan)为了纪念他的第三任妻子泰姬·玛哈尔(Mumtaz Mahal)而建造了泰姬陵。Mumtaz Mahal生下了皇帝的第14个孩子,她死在了这个过程中。这是在1631年。据传说,沙贾汗死后,他认为他的皇后是他生命中不可分割的一部分,在她死后的几个月里,他的头发和胡子都变白了,这对他来说是致命的打击。

2. Time and amount

时间和数量

Facts about Taj Mahal
The construction of the Taj Mahal was begun in 1632, a year after the death of Empress Mumtaz. The construction was completed in the year 1653, which means that it took approximately 22 years to complete this astounding piece of architecture. At that time, the estimated construction cost was a whopping sum of Rs. 32 million, which, when considered in terms of today's value of money, would be something way above $1 billion.

泰姬陵的建造始于1632年,是在皇后玛塔兹死后一年。这座建筑在1653年完工,这意味着它花了大约22年的时间完成了这一令人惊叹的建筑。当时,估计建设成本高达3200万卢比,从今天的货币价值来看,这一数字将超过10亿美元。

3. Construction and employees

建设和员工

10 Interesting Facts About Taj Mahal
The architect behind all the magic was Ahmed Lahauri. He put more than 20,000 people into building the Taj, including labourers, stonecutters, painters, embroidery artists, calligraphers, and many others. But, how were the stones and materials required for the construction of the mausoleum transported? Well, elephants were employed to do the task, and amazingly, there were more than 1,000 of the majestic creatures employed.

所有魔术背后的建筑师是Ahmed Lahauri。他让两万多人建造了泰姬陵,包括工人、石匠、画家、刺绣艺术家、书法家和其他许多人。但是,建造陵墓所需的石头和材料是如何运输的呢?大象被雇来完成这项任务,令人惊讶的是,有超过1000只雄壮的动物被雇佣。

4. Materials Used

材料

10 Interesting Facts About Taj Mahal
The magnificent edifice is bounded on three sides by red stone walls. It is constructed completely of white marble. The emperor had marbles of the best quality brought from Rajasthan, Afghanistan, Tibet and China. But this was probably not enough for the emperor. It is believed that more than 28 different types of precious and semi-precious stones, including the striking lapis lazuli, were inlaid into the marble. Now we know where all the money went.

宏伟的建筑物由红色的石墙环绕在三面。它完全由白色大理石构成。从拉贾斯坦邦、阿富汗、西藏和中国,皇帝都拥有最优质的大理石。但这对皇帝来说可能还不够。据信,有28种不同类型的宝石和半宝石,包括引人注目的青金石,镶嵌在大理石上。现在我们知道钱都花到哪里去了。

5. Inscriptions

铭文

Taj Mahal Calligraphy Example
The Taj Mahal being the dedication and homage of Mumtaz Mahal, it has calligraphy all over the interior and exterior, which, among other patterns and holy inscriptions, also has calligraphy on the tomb that identifies and praises Mumtaz Mahal. Another interesting fact is that there are 99 names of Allah found on the sides of the actual tomb as calligraphic inscriptions. After all, Shah Jahan did envision Mumtaz's home in the paradise, and Taj Mahal was that imagination coming to life.

泰姬陵是蒙塔斯·玛哈尔的献礼和致敬,它的内部和外部都有书法,除了其他的图案和神圣的铭文之外,还在陵墓上刻有铭文,用来鉴定和赞颂Mumtaz Mahal。另一个有趣的事实是,在真实的坟墓的两侧,有99个安拉的名字,作为书法铭文。毕竟,沙贾汗的确设想过Mumtaz在天堂的家,而泰姬陵则是想象的生命。

6. The Perfection that Taj Mahal Is

泰姬陵的完美之处。

10 Interesting Facts About Taj Mahal
The Taj Mahal is one of the world's most symmetrical structures. Its four sides are perfectly identical, built using the principles of self-replication and symmetry in geometry and architecture, thus creating a mirrored image on either side. But, to keep the male tomb larger than the female, the two tombs inside are unequal in size. The four minarets were prudently built slightly outside of the plinth, so that if they fell, they would fall outside, and not upon the main structure.

泰姬陵是世界上最对称的建筑之一。它的四边完全相同,在几何学和建筑中运用了自我复制和对称的原则,从而在两边创造了一个镜像。但是,为了保持男性墓穴的面积比女性的大,里面的两个墓穴的大小是不相等的。这四个尖塔是在柱顶上小心翼翼地建起来的,所以如果它们掉下来,它们就会掉到外面,而不是在主结构上。

7. Changing Moods of the Taj Mahal

改变泰姬陵的情绪。

taj mahal changing color
Did you know that the Taj Mahal dose different colours at different times of the day? The white marble and the reflective tiles help the Taj change colours. In the early morning, it assumes a shy pinkish hue, which turns to a glowing white as the day rolls on, and turns a burnished golden at night in the moonlight. The Taj Mahal is a particular attraction when on full moon nights. The changing colours are said to be analogous to the moods of a woman – Mumtaz Mahal, to be specific.

你知道泰姬陵在一天的不同时间有不同的颜色吗?白色大理石和反光瓷砖帮助泰姬陵变色。在清晨,它呈现出一种害羞的粉红色色调,随着白天的转动,它变成了一种发光的白色,在夜晚的月光下变成了明亮的金色。在满月之夜,泰姬陵是一个特别的景点。这种变化的颜色据说与女人的情绪相似——Mumtaz Mahal,具体来说。

8. Attack on the Taj Mahal

袭击泰姬陵。

Attack on the Taj Mahal
The rebellion of 1857 took a toll on the Taj which was partially damaged. The soldiers had also chiselled out some of the stones and lapis lazuli, and the garden was harmed. At the end of the 19th century, Lord Curzon, the erstwhile Viceroy of British India, ordered its renovation through an extensive project which was completed in 1908. The garden that we see today was incorporated to restore the lost elements of the Charbagh. He also gifted a chandelier, which hangs in the Taj Mahal.

1857年的叛乱给泰姬陵造成了部分破坏。士兵们还凿出了一些石头和青金石,花园也受到了伤害。19世纪末,不列颠印度的前总督柯松勋爵(Lord Curzon)在1908年完成了一项庞大的工程,下令进行翻修。我们今天所看到的花园是用来恢复沙巴的失落的元素的。他还赠送了一盏挂在泰姬陵的吊灯。

9. Myths

神话

black taj mahal
One of the common myths about the Taj Mahal is that Emperor Shah Jahan had the thumbs of the workers chopped off, to prevent them from constructing a replica of his masterpiece. However, this is not true. Another popular myth suggests he wanted to build a black Taj Mahal, but was unable to execute his plan after being deposed. The idea probably generates from European traveller Jean-Baptiste Tavernier's fanciful writings, but has no evidence to support its validity.

关于泰姬陵的一个常见的传说是,皇帝沙贾汗(Shah Jahan)的拇指被砍掉了,以阻止他们建造他的杰作的复制品。然而,这不是真的。另一个流行的说法是,他想建造一座黑色的泰姬陵,但在被废黜后无法执行他的计划。这个想法可能来自欧洲旅行者Jean-Baptiste Tavernier的幻想作品,但是没有证据支持它的有效性。

10. Taj Mahal was a Shiv Temple?

泰姬陵是一个石窟寺吗?

10 Interesting Facts About Taj Mahal
The Taj Mahal was built with a blend of Indian, Persian and Islamic styles of architecture, and is considered the magnum opus of Mughal era's architectural exploits. However, in an Indian writer, P. N. Oak, went on to claim that the Taj Mahal was actually a Shiv Temple and a Rajput palace, Tejo Mahalaya, built by a Hindu king Parmar Dev, and had been seized by Shah Jahan. His petition in 2000 to declare the same, and excavate the site for proof, was dismissed by the High Court.

泰姬陵是由印度、波斯和伊斯兰风格的建筑混合而成,被认为是莫哈勒时代建筑杰作的代表作。然而,在一名印度作家p·n·奥克(P. N. Oak)的作品中,他继续声称泰姬陵实际上是一座什叶派寺庙和一座拉杰普特宫殿(Rajput palace),它是由印度国王Parmar Dev建造的,并被沙贾汗(Shah Jahan)占领。他在2000年的请愿书中宣布了同样的情况,并挖掘了该遗址的证据,被高等法院驳回。

Today, the Taj Mahal, surrounded by gardens, guest houses and a mosque on 17 hectares of land within its complex walls, battles to hold on to its glory, as the milky marble suffers from environmental pollution. It is gradually turning yellowish, particularly due to the acid rain. The Yamuna, by which Shah Jahan had once approached the Taj Mahal in a boat and set his eyes upon his dream-mausoleum for the first, is now dry. But Emperor Shah Jahan lies in peace beside his beloved Mumtaz Mahal, within the wall of the Taj Mahal, which stands as the symbol of their love, a story that will echo for all eternity.

今天,泰姬陵被花园、宾馆和一座清真寺环绕,占地17公顷,在其复杂的城墙内,为了保持它的辉煌而战斗,就像乳白色的大理石遭受环境污染一样。它逐渐变黄,特别是由于酸雨。在亚穆纳,沙贾汗曾经在一艘船上接近泰姬陵,并把他的目光放在他的梦幻陵墓上,现在已经干涸了。但是,皇帝沙贾汗在泰姬陵的墙上,与他心爱的蒙塔兹·玛哈尔(Mumtaz Mahal)和平共处,这是他们爱情的象征,这是一个永恒的故事。