TED演讲:直面中国的崛起(5/6)

【TED】是一个会议的名称,它是英文technology, entertainment, design三个单词的首字母缩写。TED是社会各界精英交流的盛会,它鼓励各种创新思想的展示、碰撞。

TED演讲:直面中国的崛起(5/6)


Martin Jacques
Martin Jacques is the author of "When China Rules the World," and a columnist for the Guardian and New Statesman. He was a co-founder of the think tank Demos.

三个基础理解中国:文明国邦,而非民族国家;汉民族为主体;家长式的政府管理


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Hints:
Grand Canal
A.D
Western
Paul Cohen
cosmopolitan
parochial
vis-a-vis
American

Moreover, this is a very old state tradition, a very old tradition of statecraft. I mean, if you want an illustration of this, the Great Wall is one. But this is another, this is the Grand Canal, which was constructed in the first instance in the fifth century B.C. and was finally completed in the seventh century A.D. It went for 1,114 miles, linking Beijing with Hangzhou and Shanghai. So there's a long history of extraordinary state infrastructural projects in China, which I suppose helps us to explain what we see today, which is something like the Three Gorges Dam and many other expressions of state competence within China. So there we have three building blocks for trying to to understand the difference that is China -- the civilization state, the notion of race and the nature of the state and its relationship to society. And yet we still insist, by-and-large, in thinking that we can understand China by simply drawing on Western experience, looking at it through Western eyes, using Western concepts. If you want to know why we unerringly seem to get China wrong -- our predictions about what's going to happen to China are incorrect -- this is the reason. Unfortunately I think, I have to say that I think attitude towards China is that of a kind of little Westerner mentality. It's kind of arrogant. It's arrogant in the sense that we think that we are best, and therefore we have the universal measure. And secondly, it's ignorant. We refuse to really address the issue of difference. You know, there's a very interesting passage in a book by Paul Cohen, the American historian. And Paul Cohen argues that the West thinks of itself as probably the most cosmopolitan of all cultures. But it's not. In many ways, it's the most parochial, because for 200 years, the West has been so dominant in the world that it's not really needed to understand other cultures, other civilizations. Because, at the end of the day, it could, if necessary by force, get its own way. Whereas those cultures -- virtually the rest of the world, in fact -- which have been in a far weaker position, vis-a-vis the West, have been thereby forced to understand the West, because of the West's presence in those societies. And therefore, they are, as a result, more cosmopolitan in many ways than the West.此外,中国是一个非常古老的传统国家, 有一个非常古老传统的治国纲领。 如果你想搞明白这样的例子, 长城就是其中一个。 但这有另一个,这是(京杭)大运河, 它起初是 在公元前5世纪被建造的 在公元7世纪时 它最终竣工。 它有1114英里, 链接北京 到杭州和上海。 在中国, 非凡的国家大型基础建设的历史 由来已久, 我认为这也帮助我们来了解我们今天所看到的, 例如三峡大坝工程 和许多中国其它的 国家工程 业绩。 所以这3个组成部分 让我们了解中国的不同-- 文明国家, 民族的概念 和国家的属性 以及它和社会的关系。 总地说来,我们还一直坚持 认为我们仅从西方经验的视角 就能理解中国 通过西方人视角 使用西方理念来看透中国。 如果你想知道 我们为什么对中国有错误的认识 我们对在中国发生的事情的预言为什么也是不正确的 这上所述就是原因。 不幸的是我认为, 我得说我认为 对中国的态度 是西方人的一种心态做崇。 这是傲慢的心态。 就傲慢的心态而言 我们认为我们是最好的, 因此我们有普世的评判标准。 其次,这是无知的。 我们拒绝真正承认 问题的不同面。 大家知道,美国历史学家保罗·柯文(Paul Cohen)的书里(《在中国发现历史——中国中心观在美国的兴起》) 有一段非常有意思的话。 保罗·柯文讲到 西方认为它自身文化 好比是所有文化里最具有国际化的 文化。 但事实不是。 在许多方面, 它是最狭隘的, 因为200年来, 西方一直主宰世界 它不必 去了解其他文化, 其他文明。 因为,到头来, 必要时可动武, 彰显其自身文化。 反之这些其它文化 几乎在世界其它地区的,事实上, 面对西方文化,它们一直处于相对较弱的地位, 从而也一直被迫来了解西方文化, 因为西方文化在这些社会有影响力的原因。