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A pro-net neutrality protester in 2014. Associated Press

2014年,一名支持网络中立的抗议者。美联社

The FCC will vote Thursday to repeal the net neutrality rules it put in place in 2015.

美国联邦通信委员会(FCC)将于周四投票废除其在2015年实施的网络中立规则。

The repeal will likely mean higher prices and fewer choices for consumers.

废除这项法案可能意味着更高的价格和更少的消费者选择。

The repeal is good news for large telecommunications and internet companies.

对于大型电信和互联网公司来说,废除这项法案是一个好消息。

In a move that could fundamentally reshape the internet — and spur a new wave of legal wrangling — the Federal Communications Commission on Thursday will vote on a proposal to repeal its net neutrality rules.

美国联邦通信委员会(Federal Communications Commission)周四将对一项废除其网络中立规则的提案进行投票。此举可能会从根本上重塑互联网,并引发新一轮的法律纠纷。

The vote will take place during the FCC's monthly meeting, which starts at 10:30 a.m. Eastern Time. With Republicans who oppose those rules in control of the commission, the proposal is basically guaranteed to pass.

投票将在美国东部时间上午10:30开始的FCC每月会议上进行。反对这些规则的共和党人控制了这个委员会,这项提议基本上肯定会通过。

Here's what you need to know about net neutrality, the proposal, and what's likely to happen next:

以下是您需要了解的有关网络中立性,提案以及接下来可能发生的事情:

What's net neutrality?

什么是网络中立?

Net neutrality is the principle that all traffic on the internet should be treated equally. Under net neutrality protections, internet service providers (ISPs) are barred from blocking, slowing, or providing preferred treatment to particular sites and services. The rules are designed to keep the internet open to all comers and give everyone a fair shot.

网络中立是指互联网上的所有流量都应该平等对待。在网络中立保护下,互联网服务提供商(isp) 不得阻止,放缓或为特定的网站和服务提供首选的服务。这些规则旨在保持互联网对所有人开放,并给每个人公平的机会。

Without net neutrality protections, ISPs could block you from streaming video from Netflix or YouTube or charge you extra just to access those sites. On the flip site, they could force Netflix or YouTube to pay them to ensure that their videos were streamed to their users at the same speed and quality as other video sites.

如果没有网络中立的保护,isp可能会阻止你从Netflix或YouTube上观看流媒体视频,或者仅仅是为了访问那些网站而收取额外费用。在flip网站上,他们可以迫使Netflix或YouTube付费,以确保他们的视频以与其他视频网站相同的速度和质量传输给用户。。

Such moves would likely force you to pay more to view and access the videos and other information you regularly get through the internet. They also could limit your choices if the ISPs block access to particular companies' sites or charge those companies tolls that only the biggest and richest among them can afford.

这样的举动可能会迫使你花更多的钱去查看和访问你经常通过互联网获得的视频和其他信息。如果互联网服务提供商封锁了特定公司的网站,或者向那些只有最大和最富有的公司收取费用,他们也可以限制你的选择。

The FCC has had some form of net neutrality protections in place since 2005. After two different versions of the rules were struck down by the courts, the FCC in 2015 officially designated broadband providers as telecommunications companies, a move that allowed it to put in place new rules grounded in its authority over such companies under Title II of the Communications Act.

自2005年以来,FCC已经实施了某种形式的网络中立保护。在两个不同版本的规则被法庭驳回之后,FCC在2015年正式将宽带提供商指定为电信公司,这一举措使其能够实施根据“通信法”第二章的规定,这些公司有权管理这些公司。

The latest proposal from the FCC would reverse the designation of broadband providers as telecommunications companies and do away with the three major net neutrality prohibitions. Under the new proposal, companies would be able to block, slow, or provide fast lanes to particular sites or services. Their only responsibility under the proposal would be to disclose such practices to customers. The FCC would leave it up to the Federal Trade Commission to determine whether broadband companies were doing anything they hadn't disclosed.

美国联邦通信委员会(FCC)的最新提议将取消宽带提供商的指定,并废除三大网络中立禁令。根据新的提议,公司将能够阻止、减缓或提供特定地点或服务的快速通道。根据该提案,他们唯一的责任是向客户显示此类做法。联邦通信委员会将把它交给联邦贸易委员会,以确定宽带公司是否在做他们没有显示的任何事情。

Why does the FCC want to repeal net neutrality?

为什么联邦通信委员会要废除网络中立?

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FCC Chairman Ajit Pai. Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images

FCC主席Ajit Pai。

When it comes to his philosophy regarding telecommunications companies, FCC Chairman Ajit Pai, a former lawyer for Verizon, is a free-market libertarian. He's ideologically opposed to even the idea of the FCC regulating such companies. He opposed the FCC's 2015 rules and announced even before he became chairman that he would seek to overturn them.

当谈到他关于电信公司的理念时,FCC主席阿吉特·帕伊(Ajit Pai)是一个自由市场的自由主义者,他曾是Verizon的律师。他在意识形态上反对FCC监管这些公司的想法。他反对美国联邦通信委员会2015年的规定,甚至在他成为主席之前就宣布他将寻求推翻他们。

But ideology will only get you so far when it comes to changing regulations; agencies have to have a reasonable rationale for reversing themselves. Pai's main argument for doing away with the net neutrality rules is that they have depressed industry investment.

但意识形态只会在改变规则方面给你带来很大的帮助; 机构必须有一个合理的理由来扭转自己。Pai关于取消网络中立规则的主要论点是,他们的行业投资有所减少。

Broadband investment can take different forms, but it usually results in faster, more reliable networks that are available to more people. Those are outcomes that partisans on both sides of the net neutrality debate support.

宽带投资可以采取不同的形式,但通常会导致更快速,更可靠的网络向更多的人提供。这些都是网络中立性辩论支持双方的党派成员。

The problem with Pai's argument is the data he himself cites doesn't support his claim that investment is falling. Instead, that data shows that broadband investment has basically been flat since 2013, with a lot of variation among the different companies. Meanwhile, a study from consumer advocacy group Free Press indicates broadband investment has actually increased since the 2015 net neutrality rules took effect.

他认为, 他自己引用的数据 并不支持他声称投资正在下降的问题。相反,数据显示,自2013年以来,宽带投资基本持平,不同公司之间差异很大。同时,消费者权益保护组织Free Press的一项研究指出,自2015年网络中立规则生效以来, 宽带投资实际上已经增加。

Regardless, some companies have significantly cut back on their investments in recent years. But even just looking at those companies, none has blamed their reduced investment on the net neutrality rules.

无论如何,一些公司近年来大幅削减了投资。但即使只看这些公司,也没有人把他们减少的投资归咎于网络中立规则。

What happens after the repeal?

废除后会发生什么?

The rules won't take effect for a matter of months — some 60 days after they are published in the Federal Register. In the meantime, consumer advocacy and other groups will almost certainly file suit to try to block them. Members of Congress, particularly Democrats, will also likely introduce legislation to try to overturn them.

这些规定在几个月内不会生效 - 大约在联邦纪事上公布60天之后。与此同时,消费者宣传和其他团体几乎肯定会提起诉讼来阻止他们。国会议员,特别是民主党人,也可能会通过立法来推翻他们。

Assuming the rules take effect on schedule, broadband providers — wired and wireless alike — would be free to create so-called "fast lanes" for their own sites and services and those of partners who pay for the privilege. They'd also be free to charge you extra to access certain services like streaming video, or block or slow down sites or services that compete with their own — or that they simply don't like.

假设规则如期生效,宽带提供商(有线和无线)将可以自由地为自己的站点和服务以及为特权付费的合作伙伴创建所谓的“快速通道”。他们也可以自由地向您收取额外的费用,以访问流式视频等特定服务,或者阻止或减缓与自己竞争的网站或服务 - 或者他们根本就不喜欢。

Any of that and likely more would be fair game under the FCC's new regime. The only obligation broadband providers would have would be to tell you what they're doing. However, you can bet such disclosures will likely come in the kind of fine print that few of us understand or even read.

在FCC的新制度下,任何这样的事情,更可能都是公平的游戏。宽带提供商唯一的义务就是告诉你他们在做什么。不过,你可以打赌,这样的披露可能会出现在我们很少理解甚至阅读的那种印刷品中。

Who benefits from the repeal?

谁从废除中受益?

The big telecommunications companies including AT&T, Verizon, and Comcast are cheering the impending death of the net neutrality rules, in part because they think the repeal will allow them to make more money and give them more control.

AT&T,Verizon和Comcast等大型电信公司正在为即将到来的网络中立规则的死亡而欢呼,部分原因是他们认为废除将使他们赚取更多的钱,并给予他们更多的控制权。

But even the large internet companies that support the rules — including Google, Amazon, Facebook, and Netflix — will likely benefit from their demise. There's a good chance, once the rules are gone, that broadband providers will try to make internet companies pay to transmit their web sites, stream their videos, or send their data to the providers' customers. And the internet giants, with their deep pockets, are the companies in the best position to afford those tolls.

但即使是支持这些规则的大型互联网公司(包括谷歌,亚马逊,Facebook和Netflix)也可能从中受益。有一个很好的机会,一旦规则失效,宽带提供商将试图让互联网公司支付传输他们的网站,流式传输他们的视频,或者发送他们的数据给提供商的客户。互联网巨头们拥有雄厚的资金,是最有能力承担这些收费的公司。

The end of the rules could end up cementing the dominance of the big tech companies by thwarting their potential competitors and disruptors.

规则的终结可能最终通过阻止潜在的竞争对手和破坏者来巩固大科技公司的统治地位。

Who loses?

谁输了?

Normal internet users like you and me will lose out with the repeal of the net neutrality rules. It won't happen overnight, but you can expect broadband providers to start limiting what you can access on the internet or charging you more to get to the sites and services you regularly use.

像我们这样的普通网民将会因为网络中立规则的废除而受到损失。这不会在一夜之间发生,但是您可以期望宽带提供商开始限制您可以在互联网上访问的内容,或收取更多的费用来访问您经常使用的网站和服务。

Also, entrepreneurs and smaller internet companies — the people and startups pioneering new kinds of services or aiming to be the next Netflix, Google, or Facebook — could lose out if they can't afford the broadband companies' potential tolls.

另外,企业家和较小的互联网公司 - 人们和创业者开创新的服务或打算成为下一个Netflix,Google或Facebook - 如果他们无法负担宽带公司的潜在收费,可能会失败。

What's next?

下一步是什么?

The main action on net neutrality is likely to move to the courts after the FCC vote, but a decision likely won't come until at least a year after the repeal.

在FCC表决之后,网络中立性的主要行动很可能会转移到法庭,但是至少在废除一年之后才能作出决定。

Given the broad public support for net neutrality, there's a good chance lawmakers or the FCC will try to reinstate the rules if Democrats regain the majority in Congress next year or the White House in 2020.

考虑到公众对网络中立性的广泛支持,如果明年民主党在国会重新获得大多数席位,或者到2020年白宫获得大多数席位,那么立法者或联邦通讯委员会将试图恢复这些规则。

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