A pro-net neutrality protester in 2014. Associated Press
The FCC will vote Thursday to repeal the net neutrality rules it put in place in 2015.
The repeal will likely mean higher prices and fewer choices for consumers.
The repeal is good news for large telecommunications and internet companies.
In a move that could fundamentally reshape the internet — and spur a new wave of legal wrangling — the Federal Communications Commission on Thursday will vote on a proposal to repeal its net neutrality rules.
美国联邦通信委员会(Federal Communications Commission)周四将对一项废除其网络中立规则的提案进行投票。此举可能会从根本上重塑互联网，并引发新一轮的法律纠纷。
The vote will take place during the FCC's monthly meeting, which starts at 10:30 a.m. Eastern Time. With Republicans who oppose those rules in control of the commission, the proposal is basically guaranteed to pass.
Here's what you need to know about net neutrality, the proposal, and what's likely to happen next:
What's net neutrality?
Net neutrality is the principle that all traffic on the internet should be treated equally. Under net neutrality protections, internet service providers (ISPs) are barred from blocking, slowing, or providing preferred treatment to particular sites and services. The rules are designed to keep the internet open to all comers and give everyone a fair shot.
Without net neutrality protections, ISPs could block you from streaming video from Netflix or YouTube or charge you extra just to access those sites. On the flip site, they could force Netflix or YouTube to pay them to ensure that their videos were streamed to their users at the same speed and quality as other video sites.
Such moves would likely force you to pay more to view and access the videos and other information you regularly get through the internet. They also could limit your choices if the ISPs block access to particular companies' sites or charge those companies tolls that only the biggest and richest among them can afford.
The FCC has had some form of net neutrality protections in place since 2005. After two different versions of the rules were struck down by the courts, the FCC in 2015 officially designated broadband providers as telecommunications companies, a move that allowed it to put in place new rules grounded in its authority over such companies under Title II of the Communications Act.
The latest proposal from the FCC would reverse the designation of broadband providers as telecommunications companies and do away with the three major net neutrality prohibitions. Under the new proposal, companies would be able to block, slow, or provide fast lanes to particular sites or services. Their only responsibility under the proposal would be to disclose such practices to customers. The FCC would leave it up to the Federal Trade Commission to determine whether broadband companies were doing anything they hadn't disclosed.
Why does the FCC want to repeal net neutrality?
FCC Chairman Ajit Pai. Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images
When it comes to his philosophy regarding telecommunications companies, FCC Chairman Ajit Pai, a former lawyer for Verizon, is a free-market libertarian. He's ideologically opposed to even the idea of the FCC regulating such companies. He opposed the FCC's 2015 rules and announced even before he became chairman that he would seek to overturn them.
But ideology will only get you so far when it comes to changing regulations; agencies have to have a reasonable rationale for reversing themselves. Pai's main argument for doing away with the net neutrality rules is that they have depressed industry investment.
Broadband investment can take different forms, but it usually results in faster, more reliable networks that are available to more people. Those are outcomes that partisans on both sides of the net neutrality debate support.
The problem with Pai's argument is the data he himself cites doesn't support his claim that investment is falling. Instead, that data shows that broadband investment has basically been flat since 2013, with a lot of variation among the different companies. Meanwhile, a study from consumer advocacy group Free Press indicates broadband investment has actually increased since the 2015 net neutrality rules took effect.
他认为， 他自己引用的数据 并不支持他声称投资正在下降的问题。相反，数据显示，自2013年以来，宽带投资基本持平，不同公司之间差异很大。同时，消费者权益保护组织Free Press的一项研究指出，自2015年网络中立规则生效以来， 宽带投资实际上已经增加。
Regardless, some companies have significantly cut back on their investments in recent years. But even just looking at those companies, none has blamed their reduced investment on the net neutrality rules.
What happens after the repeal?
The rules won't take effect for a matter of months — some 60 days after they are published in the Federal Register. In the meantime, consumer advocacy and other groups will almost certainly file suit to try to block them. Members of Congress, particularly Democrats, will also likely introduce legislation to try to overturn them.
这些规定在几个月内不会生效 - 大约在联邦纪事上公布60天之后。与此同时，消费者宣传和其他团体几乎肯定会提起诉讼来阻止他们。国会议员，特别是民主党人，也可能会通过立法来推翻他们。
Assuming the rules take effect on schedule, broadband providers — wired and wireless alike — would be free to create so-called "fast lanes" for their own sites and services and those of partners who pay for the privilege. They'd also be free to charge you extra to access certain services like streaming video, or block or slow down sites or services that compete with their own — or that they simply don't like.
假设规则如期生效，宽带提供商（有线和无线）将可以自由地为自己的站点和服务以及为特权付费的合作伙伴创建所谓的“快速通道”。他们也可以自由地向您收取额外的费用，以访问流式视频等特定服务，或者阻止或减缓与自己竞争的网站或服务 - 或者他们根本就不喜欢。
Any of that and likely more would be fair game under the FCC's new regime. The only obligation broadband providers would have would be to tell you what they're doing. However, you can bet such disclosures will likely come in the kind of fine print that few of us understand or even read.
Who benefits from the repeal?
The big telecommunications companies including AT&T, Verizon, and Comcast are cheering the impending death of the net neutrality rules, in part because they think the repeal will allow them to make more money and give them more control.
But even the large internet companies that support the rules — including Google, Amazon, Facebook, and Netflix — will likely benefit from their demise. There's a good chance, once the rules are gone, that broadband providers will try to make internet companies pay to transmit their web sites, stream their videos, or send their data to the providers' customers. And the internet giants, with their deep pockets, are the companies in the best position to afford those tolls.
The end of the rules could end up cementing the dominance of the big tech companies by thwarting their potential competitors and disruptors.
Normal internet users like you and me will lose out with the repeal of the net neutrality rules. It won't happen overnight, but you can expect broadband providers to start limiting what you can access on the internet or charging you more to get to the sites and services you regularly use.
Also, entrepreneurs and smaller internet companies — the people and startups pioneering new kinds of services or aiming to be the next Netflix, Google, or Facebook — could lose out if they can't afford the broadband companies' potential tolls.
另外，企业家和较小的互联网公司 - 人们和创业者开创新的服务或打算成为下一个Netflix，Google或Facebook - 如果他们无法负担宽带公司的潜在收费，可能会失败。
The main action on net neutrality is likely to move to the courts after the FCC vote, but a decision likely won't come until at least a year after the repeal.
Given the broad public support for net neutrality, there's a good chance lawmakers or the FCC will try to reinstate the rules if Democrats regain the majority in Congress next year or the White House in 2020.