爱思英语编者按:常春藤名校是众多海内外学子梦想中的学术殿堂,那你对常春藤名校了解多少呢?传统三巨头,地位稳固,而新兴的三巨头也势头正猛。一起了解一下吧。

“三巨头”(“The Big Three”)传统意义上指的是美国高等教育和常春藤高校的领衔者——哈佛、耶鲁和普林斯顿这三所美国东海岸的顶尖高校。先进齐全的设施、毋庸置疑的名望以及各个领域颇有建树的诸多校友,让这三所大学成为美国高校名副其实的“三巨头”。
“The Big Three” traditionally refers to those icons of American higher education and the Ivy League: Harvard, Yale and Princeton. These three East Coast schools boast amazing facilities, resumé-making prestige, and enormously successful alumni.

不过近来,人们注意到在这个国家的另一端,美国西海岸,加州“三巨头”也在蓬勃发展,呈三足鼎立之势。加州“三巨头”指加州大学体系中最具竞争力的三所大学;除了传统“三巨头”的优势之外,它们还拥有一个无与伦比的特质:加州“三巨头”都是公立大学,所以较常春藤高校而言,学费门槛更低。
Recently, however, a new three schools have been garnering attention on the opposite side of the country: the very best institutions in the University of California system, which make up the West Coast iteration of The Big Three. While this new Big Three boast a lot of the same advantages of the traditional trio, there are some notable differences – namely, that they are all public universities, and therefore much cheaper than the Ivy League schools.

此外,与常春藤高校相比,加州大学体系中的高校培养了更多拥有不同社会经济背景的人才,每所高校也各具特色。以下是西海岸“三巨头”的一些介绍,大家可作为参考。
In addition, the UCs have more of a range of socio-economic diversity than the Ivy League universities. Each of them also has its own unique quirks and and personality. Here's a basic guide to the best of the West:


1.)加州大学伯克利分校(University of California, Berkeley)
加州大学体系的王牌——加州大学伯克利分校(被爱称为“Cal”),是一所百年名校。“Cal”位于伯克利(旧金山湾东海岸的城市),在化学、社会学、工程学等多个领域成就突出,硕果累累,学术奖项成百上千。据统计,有72名诺贝尔奖得主都与“Cal”有着千丝万缕的关联,其中有“Cal”的教授、校友,还有研究学者;这一数据在全美所有公立大学中遥遥领先。迄今为止,伯克利的研究学者已经发现了6种元素,包括以学校本身命名的锫元素(Berkelium)。
The original flagship university of the UC system, the University of California, Berkeley – affectionately known as “Cal” – has been an elite university for more than a century. Located in Berkeley, a city on the Eastern shore of the San Francisco Bay, “Cal” excels in fields as diverse as chemistry, sociology and engineering, and has won hundreds of academic awards. Seventy-two Nobel Laureates have been affiliated with the university as faculty, alumni or researchers, the most of any public university in the United States! Researchers at the school have discovered six elements, including one named after the school itself: Berkelium.

要想进入伯克利就读,竞争十分激烈。今年秋季,只有17.3%的高中毕业申请者顺利被录取,成为2014级的新生。另外值得一提的是伯克利的劳伦斯·伯克利国家实验室(Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory),这个实验室专门为美国能源部进行前沿研究。
Admissions for the university are very selective, with only 17.3 percent of high school seniors applying gaining admission for the Fall 2014 class. Also associated with the university is the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, a facility that conducts cutting edge research for the US Department of Energy.

2.)加州大学洛杉矶分校(University of California, Los Angeles)

坐落在繁华都市洛杉矶,加州大学洛杉矶分校(简称UCLA)也自成一个“小城”,每天都有7万人穿梭其中。由于UCLA毗邻好莱坞和电影厂,你说不定就能在那几万人中发现文体各界名流大腕儿的身影。
The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), is located in metropolitan Los Angeles, but basically functions as its own city, with a daily population of 70,000 people. The school’s proximity to Hollywood and the movie industry means, more often than not, at least a few of those tens of thousands happen to be celebrities or sport stars.

UCLA位于洛杉矶西部的西木区(Westwood,洛杉矶地区最精华的地段,最安全及时尚的区域),是加州大学体系的第二大王牌。尽管比北部的兄弟学校伯克利分校晚建校50年,目前洛杉矶分校已经成为全美首屈一指的研究型大学之一,尤其在医药领域优势更为显著。UCLA作为世界上申请就读人数最多的学校,其竞争激烈程度可想而知。
Located in the West L.A. neighborhood of Westwood, UCLA is the second flagship university of the UC. Fifty years younger than its northern cousin Berkeley, UCLA has grown to become one of the premier research universities in the nation, especially in the medical field. Admission to the school is very selective, with the university receiving the most applications out of any college in the world.

体育运动是UCLA的传统之一,UCLA的学生和运动队都被称为布鲁因仙熊(Bruins,UCLA的吉祥物)。长久以来,UCLA与南加州大学(USC)都是“同城死敌”,学生们都称另外一所大学为“城那头的”(“that other school across town”),因此,两校间一年一度的橄榄球赛总能吸引数以千计的观众。UCLA累计获得全美大学体育协会(NCAA)冠军共111次,这个记录任何学校都无法比拟。
One of the largest traditions at UCLA is sports, with UCLA students and athletic teams alike being known as Bruins. UCLA has along-standing rivalry with the University of Southern California, often referred to on campus as “that other school across town”, and the annual football game between the two colleges draws thousands of fans. With 111 titles, UCLA has the most NCAA team championships out of any school in the country.


3.)加州大学圣地亚哥分校(University of California, San Diego)
加州大学圣地亚哥分校(简称UCSD)成立于1960年,是加州“三巨头”最年轻的成员。UCSD地处繁荣的拉荷亚(La Jolla,圣地亚哥市北部的度假胜地社区),距离海滩和太平洋边的悬崖观景台仅仅几英里。学术研究方面,UCSD主打生命科学和社会科学这两大领域。UCSD的下设部门——斯克里普斯海洋研究所(The Scripps Institution of Oceanography),是全世界最大最老牌的地球和海洋研究所之一。此外,斯克里普斯海洋研究所还设立了史蒂芬波奇水族馆,面向公众开放。
Established in 1960, San Diego is the youngest member of the UC Big Three. Located in the affluent neighborhood of La Jolla, UC SanDiego is only a couple miles from the beach and the bluff lookouts over the Pacific Ocean. Academically, UCSD specializes in the life and social sciences.The Scripps Institution of Oceanography, which acts as a department of the university, is one of the oldest and largest facilities dedicated to the study of the Earth and the ocean. Besides being one of the most renowned oceanic science institutions in the world, Scripps also houses the Birch Aquarium, which is open to the public.

UCSD的本科部分为6个寄宿制学院,每个学院的毕业要求和教学方法都有所不同。综合学术研究、社会服务和社会贡献等指标,在华盛顿月刊的美国大学排名中,UCSD曾位列第一。
The undergraduate portion of the university is split into six residential colleges, each with different graduation requirements and approaches to education. UC San Diego is a very selective university that was ranked as the top university in the United States by Washington Monthly, which rated schools based on their contribution to the public good.