16-6. This caused the construction of gigantic buildings where too large masses of human beings are crowded together.
【讲解】where too large masses of human beings are crowded together系定语从句，修饰gigantic buildings。
make a gigantic concession 做出重大让步
make a gigantic mistake 铸成大错
16-7. Civilized men like such a way of living.
16-8. While they enjoy the comfort and banal luxury of their dwelling, they do not realize that they are deprived of the necessities of life.
banal：陈腐的，平庸的，乏味的（ordinary and not interesting, because of a lack of new or different ideas），
a banal remark 陈词滥调
There was nothing new in his banal lecture.
The restaurant serves banal food.
necessity：必要的东西，必不可少的事物，必需品（something that you need to have in order to live），
Good maps are a necessity to travelers.
Water is a necessity of life.
What we did was a moral necessity.
16-9. The modern city consists of monstrous edifices and of dark, narrow streets full of petrol fumes，coal dust and toxic gases, torn by the noise of the taxicabs, lorries and buses, and thronged ceaselessly by great crowds.
【讲解】of monstrous edifices和of dark, narrow streets…great crowds都与consists搭配在一起使用。full of petrol fumes，coal dust and toxic gases作streets的定语。torn by the noise of the taxicabs, lorries and buses和thronged ceaselessly by great crowds都是过去分词短语，作定语修饰streets。
throng：在……聚集，使拥塞（people throng a place, they go there in large numbers），
They thronged the doorway. 他们都挤在门口。
16-10. Obviously, it has not been planned for the good of its inhabitants.
【讲解】it指the modern city。
good：好处，用处，利益（a useful effect），
Milk does you (your health) good.
It was for her own good. 这是为他自己好。
What is the good of his coming tomorrow?
the good of the state 国家利益
the common good 公益