11. Such variations in size, shape,chemistry, conduction speed, excitation threshold,and the like as had been demonstrated in nerve cells remained negligible in significance for any possible correlation with the manifold dimensions of mental experience. 类似于这些已经被在神经细胞中证明的在大小、形状、化学过程、产生的速度、兴奋阈值及其类似的方面上所发生变化,当他们被用来与大脑的体验以可能的方式联系起来的时候,他们在重要性上仍然是微不足道的。

12. It was possible to demonstrate by other methods refined structural differences among neuron types ;however , proof was lacking that the quality of the impulse or its condition was influenced by these differences , which seemed instead to influence the developmental patterning of the neural circuits . 有可能通过其他方法来证明神经元种类间的细微的结构差异;可是,这样的证据是缺乏的,即神经冲动的性质或者状态是受这些差异所影响的,而这些差异看起来却能影响神经网络的发育模式。

13. Although qualitative variance among nerve energies was never rigidly disproved,the doctrine was generally abandoned in favor of the opposing view,namely,that nerve impulses are essentially homogeneous in quality and are transmitted as "common currency" throughout the nervous system. 尽管在神经能量上存在着质的不同,这一点从来都没有在严格的意义上被反对过,但是以上教条通常被抛弃掉,而转向相反的观点,即:神经冲动从根本上本质相同,而且被当作"一种普通流"在整个神经系统中传播。

14. Other experiments revealed slight variations in the size,number, arrangement,and interconnection of the nerve cells,but as far as psycho neural correlations were concerned,the obvious similarities of these sensory fields to each other seemed much more remarkable than any of the minute differences. 尽管其他实验显示在神经细胞的大小、数量、排列和相互连接上有一些小的差异,但是就心理-神经的关系而言,这些感官区域彼此之间的明显的相似性看起来比起微小的差异更为令人注目。

15. Although some experiments show that,as an object becomes familiar,its internal representation becomes more holistic and the recognition process correspondingly more parallel,the weight of evidence seems to support the serial hypothesis,at least for objects that are not notably simple and familiar. 虽然某些实验表明,随着一个物体变得熟悉起来,其内心再现图像亦更具整体感,辨认过程相应地更趋于平行,但证据的砝码似乎在支持序列假设(serial hypothesis),至少是对于那些不甚简单、不甚熟悉的物体来说.

16. In large part as a consequence of the feminist movement,historians have focused a great deal of attention in recent years on determining more accurately the status of women in various periods. 在很大程度上,由于女权主义运动(feminist movement)的缘故,史学家近年来汇聚了大量的注意力,来更为准确地确定妇女在各个历史时期的地位。 Focus A on B;

17. If one begins by examining why ancients refer to Amazons , it becomes clear that ancient Greek descriptions of such societies were meant not so much to represent observed historical fact -real Amazonian societies - but rather to offer "moral lessons" on the supposed outcome of women's rule in their own society . 如果我们先研究一下为什么古人会提到亚马逊人,下面的一点就变得清晰了,那就是古希腊对于这种社会的庙睡不是太多的被用来表达观察的历史事实--真正的亚麻逊社会的--而是为了对于妇女在其社会中的统治的预期后果提供一种"道德教导"。

18. Thus,for instance,it may come as a shock to mathematicians to learn that the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogen atom is not a literally correct description of this atom,but only an approximation to a somewhat more correct equation taking account of spin,magnetic dipole,and relativistic effects;and that this corrected equation is itself only an imperfect approximation to an infinite set of quantum field-theoretical equations. 因此,举例来说,对数学家而言,了解到下述情形可能会令其惊愕不已,即薛定谔(Schrodinger)的氢原子方程式并非是对该原子作出的一种绝然正确的描述,而仅仅是个近似值,趋近于一个在某种程度上更为正确的将自旋、磁性偶极子、以及相对论效应考虑在内的方程式;而这个得以纠正的方程式就其本身而言也只是一个不完美的近似值,趋近于无穷无尽的一整套量子场论方程式。

19. The physicist rightly dreads precise argument,since an argument that is convincing only if it is precise loses all its force if the assumptions on which it is based are slightly changed,whereas an argument that is convincing though imprecise may well be stable under small perturbations of its underlying assumptions. 物理学家恐惧于那些精确无误的论据不无道理,因为某种只有在它是精确无误的条件下才令人置信的论据,一旦它赖于建立其上的假设稍有变化,便会失去它一部的作用;而与此相反,一个尽管并不精确无误但却令人置信的论据,在其基本假设(underlying assumption)稍微受干扰的情况下,仍然有可能是站得住脚的。

20. However,as they gained cohesion,the Bluestockings came to regard themselves as a women's group and to possess a sense of female solidarity lacking in the salonnieres,who remained isolated from one another by the primacy each held in her own salon. 起初,蓝袜女们确实模仿了法国沙龙女主人,将男性襄括到其小圈子中来。然则,随着她们获得的凝聚力,她们渐趋将自己视作一女性团体,并拥有了一种妇女团结意识,而这种意识在法国沙龙女主人身上则荡然无存,因为她们每个人在其自己的沙龙中自视甚高而彼此孤立隔绝开来。