高考命题者常常利用熟悉的句型结构,或者一些固定搭配来制造陷阱,让考生在非常神气的心情中快速地得出错误的答案。针对这种情况,笔者粗略归纳了常见陷阱题的类型并加以分析,希望能对同学们在解题过程中巧识陷阱有所帮助。
  1. 思维定势型
  思维定势是指人们在长期的思维过程中所形成的一种固定的思维模式。它是一把双刃剑,如果运用得当,它可以帮助考生将考题内容与以前所学知识迅速联系起来,并在短时间内调集解决问题所需的相关知识进行分析、推理,并很快得出正确的结论;但若运用不当,它便会误导考生掉入命题人所预设的陷阱,得出错误的结论。
  例1 In order not to be disturbed, I spent three hours ______ in my study.
   A. locking
   B. locked
   C. to lock
   D. to be locked
  解析:答案为B,但考生易误选A,以为是考查spend...(in)doing结构。其实,不是“锁门”花去了三小时,而是“将自己锁在书房里度过了三小时”,用过去分词短语作伴随状语。
  2. 规则硬套型
  就是指不从语言实际出发,不考虑特定的语言环境,而是机械地套用语法规则,生搬硬套语法的条条框框,从而错误地作出选择。
  例2 He made up his mind to devote his life ______pollution______ happily.
   A. to prevent, to live   B. to prevent, from living
   C. to preventing, to live D. to preventing, living
  解析:答案为C,但易误选B,认为第一空应填to,是不定式符号,第二空是prevent... (from) doing sth.是固定搭配。其实devote ... to ... (把……奉献给……)中的to是介词,接-ing形式;第二空也不是“阻止污染过上幸福生活”,而是“为了过上幸福生活而阻止污染”,用不定式作目的状语。
  3. 母语干扰型
  学外语最忌母语干扰,但由于母语在大脑中根深蒂固,所以常常会对外语学习者大脑中尚不牢固的外语知识产生负面影响。命题者也往往利用这一点,制造陷阱。
  例3 I’ll come to see you if______.
   A. you’re convenient
   B. it is convenient for you
   C. you feel convenient
   D. it is convenient with you
  解析:答案为B,但易误选A或C,因为按汉语意思,“如果你方便的话”,易直译为if you are convenient或if you feel convenient。但事实上,英语中表示“如果你方便的话”,通常说if it is convenient for(to)you。
  4. 插入隔离型
  有时一个本来很简单的句子,在其中置入一个插入成分,或将某些成分从正常位置调入一个在同学们看来属“非正常”的位置,则很有可能给同学们的理解带来困难。
  例4 He ran as fast as he could ______the bus.
   A. catch  B. to catch  C. catching D. caught
  解析: 答案为B,但易选A,以为情态动词could后要接动词原形。其实,这里的情态动词could后已省略了一个动词原形run了,后面应用动词不定式表示目的。
  5. 借用倒装型
  英语句子的一般语序为“主语部分+谓语部分”,如果把谓语或谓语的一部分放到主语前面,我们称之为倒装。命题者就利用这种“不正常”的句式跟你“绕弯子”。解决类似的题目,关键是要熟悉倒装规则,学会识别倒装句。
  例5 _______he followed my advice, he would have succeeded.
   A. When   B. If     C. Had     D. Has
  解析: 答案为C,但易误选B。若选B,主句和从句的时态就会矛盾了,根据后面的谓语的形式,前面要用过去完成式had followed才对。其实,这里的if被省略,将had提前了。
  下面就请你练练身手吧!你可别掉进陷阱哟,万一掉进去了,那就要好好反思一下,并希望你能从中获得一些启发。
  1. ______smoking here will be fined.
   A. Who   B. Whomever C. Anyone D. Whoever
  2. After______ seemed like hours he came out with a bitter smile.
   A. which   B. it     C. what  D. that
  3. ______is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month.
   A. It    B. As   C. That   D. What
  4. He is always really rude, ______is why people tend to avoid him.
   A. that   B. it   C. this   D. which
  5. Mr. Smith is a painter, ______I should also like to be.
   A. that   B. which  C. who   D. it
  6. According to the rules, students must not ______their books during examinations.
   A. read    B. watch  C. notice   D. look at
  7. Remind him ______ the window when he leaves.
   A. of closing  B. closing  C. to close  D. close
  8. On Saturday afternoon, Mrs. Green went to the market, ______ some bananas and visited her cousin.
   A. bought  B. buying  C. to buy  D. buy
  9. It was 10 o?蒺clock ______ the front doorbell rang.
   A. where   B. when  C. that   D. which
  10. ______, we went for a swim.
   A. Being hot      B. It being hot  
   C. As it is hot      D. It was hot
  11. Before he went abroad, he spent as much time as he ______ English.
   A. could learning    B. learned
   C. to learn       D. could learn
  12. —Did they all pass the driving test?
    —No, ______ only three of them who passed it.
   A. there was      B. that was
   C. there were       D. it was
  13. The “Two Cities” referred ______ London and Paris.
   A. is to         B. to be  
   C. to are       D. to going to be
  14. This is the main use that the scientists make ______ of natural resources.
   A. it    B. which  C. use   D. /
  15. Mr. Smith is______ a good teacher______ we all respect.
   A. such, that      B. such, as
   C. so, that       D. so, as
  16. If you want to go to see the movie,so ______ I.
 A. do    B. am   C. will   D. should
  17. Which do you enjoy ______ your weekends, fishing or watching TV?
   A. spending       B. to spend
   C. being spent      D. spend
  18. Is there a shop around ______ we can buy some toilet articles?
   A. that   B. which  C. where  D. what
  答案与简析
  1. C smoking here做后置定语修饰主语anyone。若把smoking改为smokes, 那就选D。
  2. C after 在此处是介词,what(=the time that)引导宾语从句。
  3. B as引导的是定语从句,代表后面整句话的意思。若把逗号改为that, 就选A, it 是形式主语,that 从句为主语从句。
  4. D which 引导非限制性定语从句。假如把逗号改为句号或分号,就用It或That。
  5. B which 引导非限制性定语从句,先行词是表示职业身份的a painter。
  6. D 句意为“学生们考试时不能看书(作弊)”,不是读书的意思。
  7. C remind sb to do sth提醒某人去做某事;remind sb of sth使某人想起类似的人或事。  
  8. A and连接了三个动词。
  9. B it在此指时间,when引导的是时间状语从句。若在10 o?蒺clock前加上at,就是强调结构了。
  10. B 前后主语不一致,不能选A;C项时态不符;句子之间没有连接词,不能选D。
  11. A 情态动词could 后本来有动词原形spend,只是被省略了。
  12. D 强调句型。
  13. C referred to是后置定语。
  14. D that the scientists make of是定语从句,关系代词that代表先行词use;make use of(利用)为固定短语。
  15. B 因respect缺宾语,是定语从句,先行词前有such,用关系代词as。若在respect后加上him,就选A。
  16. C 条件状语从句用的是一般现在时,后面的主句用一般将来时,用shall或will。
  17. B 指代fishing or watching TV的which才是enjoy的宾语,enjoy后是目的状语。
  18. C 这里的around不是介词而是副词,用where引导定语从句。