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中国领先

来源:  日期:2017-06-19 21:52  阅读 56 次  作者:   划词  进入论坛  投稿

 
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编者按:中国共产党第十九届中国共产党大会期间,“中国日报”将介绍一系列具有重要意义的重点项目,展示了国家在制造升级与创新方面的巨大进步和不懈努力。

虽然从商业使用还有15年的时间,所谓的可燃性冰及其在中国的成功开采被视为对全球能源革命的突破。

中国研究人员在5月初进行了试钻和生产作业30天内,探索了在中国南海冻结晶体中约21万立方米的可燃冰。日产量达到6800立方米。

中国地质调查局副局长李金发在国土资源部下属的情况下,再次引发中国在美国页岩革命后重新塑造全球能源结构的另一场能源革命。

天然气水合物储量可燃冰或易燃冰是已知的,南海的石油当量估计为800亿公吨。

该部说,将制定鼓励参与各类可燃冰的勘探的政策,同时优先考虑勘探区块划定,采矿许可证,采矿登记和开发等方面,为冻结商业化铺平道路汽油。

据中国2016年能源矿产地质调查报告,中国的天然气水合物可以持续100年,可能是中国下一个能源大国。

分析人士说,目前中国对可燃性开采活动大力扩张的选择是由于迫切需要更换常规能源,优化能源结构,缓解能源短缺造成的问题。

现在国家严重依赖原油进口。北大的海洋研究所教授陆海龙说,成功开采可燃冰将大大提升其能源安全,同时将国家清洁能源生产技术提升到一个新台阶。

国家发展和改革委员会能源研究所所长韩文科表示,环境问题一直在推动中国进一步提升能源结构。目前中国煤炭比重较高,造成重污染。

据国际能源署介绍,随着需求的增加,中国越来越依赖进口石油,据估计,2020年中国对石油进口的依赖可能远高于政府计划。

所有这些都推动中国走向更清洁的燃料替代品。

Editor's note: In the run-up to the 19th Communist Party of China National Congress, China Daily will cover a series of key projects of national importance, showcasing the country's huge improvement and relentless efforts in manufacturing upgrade and innovation.

Though still 15 years from commercial use, so-called combustible ice and its successful mining in China is seen as a breakthrough toward a global energy revolution.

Chinese researchers have explored some 210,000 cubic meters of combustible ice trapped in frozen crystals in the South China Sea in the 30 days since a test drilling and production operation in early May. Daily production reached 6,800 cu m.

It will be another energy revolution, led by China following the US shale revolution, reshaping the global energy mix, said Li Jinfa, deputy director of China Geological Survey, which is under the Ministry of Land and Resources.

Reserves of gas hydrate, as combustible ice or flammable ice is known, in the South China Sea are estimated at 80 billion metric tons of oil equivalent, he added.

The ministry said it would formulate policies to encourage participation in the exploration of various types of combustible ice, while aspects including exploration block delineation, granting of licenses for mining, mining registration and development will be given priority to pave a path for commercialization of the frozen fuel.

According to a report on China's energy and mineral geology survey in 2016, China's gas hydrate could last the country for 100 years and could well be China's next big opportunity in energy.

China's choice of vigorous expansion of flammable ice mining at the moment is due to its urgency to replace conventional energy to optimize the energy structure and relieve problems caused by energy shortages, analysts said.

The nation now relies heavily on crude imports. Successfully mining flammable ice will substantially boost its energy security while lifting the country's clean energy production technologies to a new level, said Lu Hailong, a professor at the Institute of Ocean Research at Peking University.

Han Wenke, director of the Energy Research Institute at the National Development and Reform Commission, said environmental concerns had been pushing China to further upgrade its energy mix. Right now, China has a relatively high proportion of coal, which creates heavy pollution.

According to the International Energy Agency, China has been increasingly relying on imported oil as demand increases, and it is estimated that China's reliance on oil imports in 2020 could be even greater than the government's plan suggests.

All these are pushing China toward a cleaner fuel alternative.


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全球舞台上的领袖

中国不是第一个尝试开采易燃冰的国家。日本在2013年和上个月再次取得进展,而美国政府多年来一直在研究清洁燃料。

然而,主要是由于技术壁垒而没有取得进展。

汉水说,天然气水合物的成功开采绝对使中国成为清洁能源矿业的先驱,尽管在油气勘探,页岩气和煤矿开采方面已经落后于国际同行。韩先生说,缺乏借鉴或借鉴的技术或经验使中国的成功更具价值。

他说,通常位于地球深处的天然气水合物,需要先进的技术和综合的国力。

一旦中国在未来达到稳定的水合气产量,就需要国际合作,因为天然气水合物大部分被冻结在国际海洋深处。

据试矿总部邱海军介绍,沿线21世纪海事丝绸之路的许多国家都有对易燃开采的需求。

邱先生说,天然气水合物具有先进技术,有助于解决能源问题,促进经济发展与国家间的交流。

Leader on global stage

China is not the first country to try mining flammable ice. Japan made headway in 2013 and again last month, while the U.S. government also been conducting research into the clean fuel for years.

However, no progress has been made mostly because of technological barriers.

The successful mining of gas hydrate has absolutely made China into a forerunner in the clean energy mining field, Han said, even though it has trailed behind international peers in the exploration of oil, gas, shale gas and coal mining. The lack of technology or experience to borrow or learn from makes China's success of even greater value, Han said.

The gas hydrate, which usually is located frozen deep in the Earth, requires advanced technologies and a comprehensive national strength, he said.

Once China comes up with a steady output of hydrate gas in the future, international cooperation would be needed, as much of the gas hydrate is frozen deep beneath international seas, he said.

According to Qiu Haijun, director of the trial mining headquarters, many countries along the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road have a demand for flammable ice mining.

With advanced technology, Qiu said, the gas hydrate could help resolve the problem of energy resources and boost economic development and exchanges between countries.

深海能力

中国国际海运集装箱集团和中国石油天然气集团公司进行的测试钻井和生产操作为2030年前资源的商业利用奠定了坚实的基础,测试钻井有助于中国的深海勘探能力。中国地质调查。

据中国工程院院士金庆环介绍,到2020年中国将完成商业化生产初步准备工作,包括采矿技术和海底天然气水合物评估。到2030年,中国将进行商业化生产。

蓝鲸1号,由全国最大的半潜式平台制造商中国烟台中集莱佛士离岸有限公司建造的超深水半潜式钻机在南海进行了测试。

中小集团总裁麦伯良表示,蓝鲸1号是世界上最先进的海洋钻井平台设计,是中集进一步提升中国高端能源勘探设备的重要实践。

Deep-sea capabilities

The test drilling and production operation conducted by China International Marine Containers Group and China National Petroleum Corp created a solid foundation for commercial use of the resource before 2030 and the test-drilling will help facilitate China's deep-sea exploration capability, said Li, of the China Geological Survey.

According to Jin Qinghuan, an academician with the Chinese Academy of Engineering, China will complete the initial preparatory work for commercial production by 2020, including mining technologies and evaluation of seabed natural gas hydrate. By 2030, China will carry out commercial production.

Blue Whale 1, the ultra-deep-water semisubmersible drilling rig built by the nation's largest semisubmersible platform manufacturer, China Yantai CIMC Raffles Offshore Ltd, conducted the tests in the South China Sea.

Mai Boliang, president of CIMC, said Blue Whale 1 is the world's most advanced ocean drilling platform design and it was important practice for CIMC to further enhance China's high-end energy exploration equipment.

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中国领先长途旅程的一步
能源研究所主任韩汉华告诉“中国日报”,经过20年的研究和探索,成功只是漫长的一段时间。

他说,环境和技术壁垒的潜在风险使所有乐观的前景变得软弱。

据韩国人士介绍,迄今为止,收集更多的是战争关注的巨大的不确定性,冷冻燃料是否取代普通石油和天然气还有待观察。

天然气水合物也将面临来自其他更清洁的替代燃料(包括光伏和风力发电)的竞争。就像在美国的页岩勘探早期一样,成功的探索取决于先进的技术,降低成本和环境风险。

下一步更多的是研究和试点探索。考虑到存储和运输成本,潜在的环境问题,海洋污染风险和技术壁垒,未来三年商业生产将不太可能。

作为替代普通石油和天然气,天然气水合物类似任何化石燃料的有力竞争者也引起了重大的环境问题。

据美国地质调查局介绍,易燃冰的资源位于海底,使得收藏具有挑战性。

李鹏说,发现事故会导致甲烷气体大量泄漏,加剧温室效应。

天然气水合物生产领域的叶建良表示,已采取严格措施保护环境。

他说:「我们正在监测空气,海水,海底及勘探设备,我们亦密切关注甲烷和二氧化碳的量。」

“到目前为止,没有发生环境污染或地质灾害。”

One step in long journey
Han, the Energy Research Institute's director, told China Daily that the success after 20 years of research and exploration is only a small step in a very long journey.

The potential risks for the environment and technological barriers soften all the optimistic outlooks, he said.

According to Han, collection so far is more of strategic concern with vast uncertainties, and whether the frozen fuel will replace regular oil and natural gas remains to be seen.

Gas hydrate also will face competition from other cleaner alternative fuels, including photovoltaic and wind power. And just like the early days of shale exploration in the United States, successful exploration depends on advanced technologies, reduced costs and environmental risks, he said.

The next step is more of research and trial exploration. Commercial production is unlikely in the next three years, considering storage and transportation costs, potential environmental concerns, the risk of marine pollution and technological barriers.

Being a strong contender to replace regular oil and natural gas, gas hydrate-like any fossil fuel-also raises significant environmental concerns.

According to the US Geological Survey, resources of flammable ice are located at sea bottom, making the collection challenging.

Li said an accident while exploring would lead to a massive leakage of methane gas and intensify the greenhouse effect.

Ye Jianliang, who heads the gas hydrate production field, said strict measures have been taken to protect the environment.

"We are monitoring the air, seawater, seabed and the exploration equipment. We also closely follow the amount of methane and carbon dioxide," he said.

"No pollution to the environment or geological hazards had happened so far."

 

转贴于:24EN.COM

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