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形意到底能否兼顾?
 
             诗不可译,所以才有形形色色的创译。《诗经》中的《淇奥》William Jones译了两个版本,先是字面上靠近原文的无韵体,接着是与原文几乎没有关系的韵体。这给人的感觉是保留保留诗的内容就要失去它的形式,而要表现其形式就要舍弃它的内容。我想,这类观念对后世影响极大,以至于今天的歌词译文就内容而言与原文几乎就没有关系了。  且看Jones的两个版本:
 
瞻彼淇奥,
绿竹猗猗。
有匪君子,
如切如磋,
如琢如磨。
瑟兮僩兮,
赫兮咺兮。
有匪君子,
      终不可谖兮。   
 
瞻彼淇奥,
绿竹青青。
有匪君子,
充耳琇莹,
会弁如星。
瑟兮僩兮,
赫兮咺兮。
有匪君子,
     终不可谖兮。   
 
瞻彼淇奥,
绿竹如箦。
有匪君子,
如金如锡,
如圭如璧。
宽兮绰兮,
猗重较兮。
善戏谑兮,
不为虐兮。
 
无韵版:
Behold yon reach of the River KI;
Its green reeds, how luxuriant, how luxuriant!
Thus is our Prince adorned with virtues;
As a carver, as a filer, of ivory,
As a cutter, as a polisher, of gems.
O how elate, how sagacious! O how dauntless and composed!
How worthy of fame! How worthy of reverence!
We have a Prince adorned with virtues,
Whom to the end of time we can not forget.
 
韵体版:
 Behold, where yon blue riv’let glides
Along the laughing dale;
Light reeds bedeck its verdant sides,
And frolic in the gale.
 
So shines our Prince! In bright array
The Virtues around him wait;
And sweetly smil’d th’ auspicious day,
That rais’d Him o’er our State.
 
As pliant hands in shapes refin’d
Rich iv’ry carve and smoothe,
His laws thus mold each ductile mind,
And every passion soothe.
 
As gems are taught by patient art
In sparkling ranks to beam,
With manners thus he forms the heart,
And spreads a gen’ral gleam.
 
What soft, yet aweful, dignity!
What meek, yet manly grace!
What sweetness dances in his eye,
And blossoms in his face!
 
So shines our Prince! A sky-born crowd
Of Virtues around him blaze:
Ne’er shall Oblivision’s murky cloud
Obscure his deathless praise.
 
                               再看现代的《女人花》:
 
我有花一朵,种在我心中
含苞待放意幽幽
朝朝与暮暮,我切切地等待
有心的人来入梦
 
女人花 摇曳在红尘中
女人花 随风轻轻摆动
只盼望 有一双温柔手
能抚慰 我内心的寂寞
 
我有花一朵,花香满枝头
谁来真心寻芳踪,花开不多时
啊堪折直须折,女人如花花似梦
 
我有花一朵,长在我心中
真情真爱无人懂,
遍地的野草已占满了山坡,
孤芳自赏最心痛
 
女人花 摇曳在红尘中
女人花 随风轻轻摆动
只盼望 有一双温柔手
能抚慰 我内心的寂寞
 
女人花 摇曳在红尘中
女人花 随风轻轻摆动
若是你 闻过了花香浓
别问我 花儿是为谁红
 
爱过知情重。醉过知酒浓
花开花谢终是空
缘分不停留,像春风来又走
女人如花花似梦
 
缘分不停留,像春风来又走
女人如花花似梦
 
 Sophia Kallgren演唱版:
 
Everything has changed, everything's arranged
ever since you close the door
I'm stronger everyday since you went away.
guess I will not cry anymore
 
all the night the darker than before
And the days I've learned to love them more
Even though you're somewhere here beside
Stay away. You don't live here anymore
 
I could've been captived all like it was before
when I thought our love was true
But everything's surreal.That is how I feel.
So I painted all in blue
 
Lots of memories live inside of me
even if our love has gone, maybe I was wrong
thought I'd be so strong.
Now I stay here all alone
 
all the night the darker than before
And the days I've learn to love them more
Even though you're somewhere here beside
Stay away. You don't live here anymore
 
All the night the darker than before
And the days I've learn to love than more
Even though you're somewhere here beside
Stay away. You don't live here anymore
 
All the night the darker than before
And the days I've learn to love than more
Even though you're somewhere here beside
Stay away. You don't live here anymore
 
Sometimes when it's cold, I long for you to hold.
Now I think I realize,
I have to change my mind, leave my dreams behind
Cause you don't live here anymore
 
I have to change my mind, leave my dreams behind
Cause you don't live here anymore
  
内容上与原文有关系吗?其实,形神是可以兼顾的。你需要在语篇的形与语篇所要传达的意之间找到最佳平衡点。我《淇奧》与《女人花》的译文分别如下:
 
The River Swirls Past
 
Where the river swirls past,
The bamboos their shade cast.
The lord stands there refined,
Like ivory polished,
Like precious stone finished.
Lo, he’s solemn and grave;
Lo, he’s open and brave.
The lord stands there refined;
We will bear him in mind!
 
Where the river swirls past,
The bamboos attract a blast.
The lord stands there refined,
Wearing ruby garnished,
Wearing sapphire varnished.
Lo, he’s solemn and grave;
Lo, he’s open and brave.
The lord stands there refined;
We will bear him in mind!
 
Where the river swirls past
The bamboos cluster fast.
The lord stands there refined,
Like gold or gem well-made,
Like pearl or jade inlaid.
Lo, he’s gentle and bland
Lo, he does by cart stand.
He laughs, to fun inclined,
But always well confined.
 
 
Woman Flower
 
 Tr. Zhao Yanchun
 
Flower I have one; in my heart she grows.
Like a smile, she buds and blows.
Day in and day out, I keenly wait for you,
You haven’t stirred my dream though.
 
Woman flower, in the world she sways;
Woman flower, with the wind she strays.
How I wish your loving hand combed through
My heart so lonely, my heart so blue.
 
Flower I have one; her balm loads the sprays.
Who really follows her trace?
The flower now blows.
Gather her while you may. A woman’s a dream, a rose.
 
Flower I have one, in my heart she glows
Good will, true love, no one knows
 Now here and there all over the slope grass crawls
 I’m Daffodil that hurts and falls!
 
Woman flower, in the world she sways;
Woman flower, with the wind she strays.
How I wish your loving hand combed through
My heart so lonely, my heart so blue.
 
Woman flower, in the world she sways;
Woman flower, with the wind she strays.
If her balm comes to tickle your nose,
Don’t ask me for whom the bloom glows.
 
To know love you love; to know wine you drink.
All flowers fall, white or pink.
Nothing is to stay, like spring wind gone away.
A woman’s a dream, a rose.
 
Nothing is to stay, like spring wind gone away.
A woman’s a dream, a rose.