Lesson 6 The sporting spirit
第六课体育精神


by GEORGE ORWELL
from The sporting spirit


6-1. I am always amazed when I hear people saying that sport creates goodwill between the nations, and that if only the common peoples of the would could meet one another at football or cricket, they would have no inclination to meet on the battlefield.


【译文】当人们说体育可创造两国的友谊,还说各国民众若在足球场或板球场上交锋就不愿在战场上残杀的时候,我总是惊愕不已。


【讲解】that if only…cricket作saying的宾语从句。其中的if从句是非真实条件从句。could meet和would have是表示与现实事实不符的虚拟结构。if only意为“只要”,引导非真实或真实条件句。


【单词和短语】


amazed:十分惊奇的,吃惊的;显示出惊奇的(very surprised),动词形式为amaze,名词形式为amazement,

例如:
I was amazed at the news. 我听到这消息大为惊诧。


I am amazed that he has never read The Lord of the Rings.
他从未读过《指环王》,我对此大为惊奇。


goodwill:善意,友善;友好,亲善(kind feelings towards or between people and a willingness to be helpful),

例如,
Princess Diana’s heart is full of goodwill to all men. 戴安娜王妃的心里对所有人都充满善意。


inclination:(性格上的)倾向;意向;爱好,癖好(a feeling that makes you want to do sth.),动词形式为incline,形容词形式为inclined,

例如,
My inclination is to agree. 我倾向于同意。
have an inclination for sports爱好体育
follow one’s own inclinations随心所欲


6-2. Even if one didn't know from concrete examples (the 1936 Olympic Games, for instance) that international sporting contests lead to orgies of hatred, one could deduce if from general principles.


【译文】人们即使不能从具体的事例(如1936年奥运会)了解到国际运动比赛会导致极度仇恨,也能从常理中推出结论。


【讲解】that international sporting contests lead to orgies of hatred作know的宾语。one泛指人,可译为“人们”。it指international… hatred。


【单词和短语】


concrete:具体的;确实的(definite and specific),

例如,
a concrete proposal/example 具体的建议/例子
Money is concrete and wealth is abstract.
钱是具体的,财富是抽象的。


concrete的反义词是abstract。


concrete 亦可做名词,常见意为“大理石”。


orgy:无节制行为(an orgy of sth. used emphasize that people suddenly do a lot of a particular activity),

例如:
an all-night orgy of reading 彻夜的尽情阅读
an orgy of looting and burning 大肆抢劫并纵火的暴行


hatred:仇恨;敌意;憎恶(an angry feeling of extreme dislike for sb. or sth.),

例如:
have /nurse a ferocious hatred of/for sb. 对某人怀有深仇大恨
utter one’s hatred against the enemy 说出对敌人的憎恨


deduce:演绎;推论;推断(to use the knowledge and information you have in order to understand sth or form an opinion about it),

例如:
From his conversation, she deduced that he had a large family.
她从他的谈话中推断出他家里人口多。


deduce联想到deduction(演绎法)、induce(归纳)和induction(归纳法)。


6-3. Nearly all the sports practised nowadays are competitive.


【译文】现在开展的各种体育项目几乎都具竞争性。


【讲解】practised nowadays是过去分词短语,作定语,修饰sports。


【单词和短语】competitive的动词形式为compete,名词形式为competition。


6-4. You play to win, and the game has little meaning unless you do your utmost to win.


【译文】参加比赛就是为了取胜。如果不拼命争取胜利,比赛就没有什么意义了。


【讲解】you泛指人,可译为“人们”。to win作目的状语。


【单词和短语】


do one’s utmost:竭力(tried as hard as one could),

例如:
The coach did his utmost to make us into a winning game.
教练竭尽全力使我队成了常胜队。
与do one’s utmost同义的短语有spare no efforts,stint no efforts,do sth. to the best of one’s ability等。