6-5. On the village green, where you pick up sides and no feeling of local patriotism is involved, it is possible to play simply for the fun and exercise: but as soon as a the question of prestige arises, as soon as you feel that you and some larger unit will be disgraced if you lose, the most savage combative instincts are aroused.


【译文】在乡间的草坪上,当你随意为双方鼓劲,并且不涉及任何地方情绪时,那才可能是单纯的为了娱乐和锻炼而进行比赛。可是一量涉及到荣誉问题,一旦你想到你和某一团体会因为你输而丢脸时,那么最野蛮的争斗天性便会被激发。


【讲解】the fun and exercise中fun和exercise被视为整体看待,所以才共用一个定冠词the。


【单词和短语】


patriotism:爱国主义,另掌握patriot(爱国者)和patriotic(爱国的)两词。


6-6. Anyone who has played even in a school football match knows this.


【译文】即使是仅参加过学校足球赛的人也有这种体会。


【讲解】who has played even in a school football match系定语从句,修饰anyone。


6-7. At the international level, sport is frankly mimic warfare.


【译文】在国际比赛中,体育简直是模拟战争。


【讲解】at the international level作状语,直译为“在国际水平上”。


【单词和短语】


frankly:坦白地,直率地;不加掩饰地(used to show that you are really think about sth.),

例如:
He frankly admitted his error. 他坦率地承认了自己的错误。


mimic:模拟的(to behave or operate in exactly the same way as sth. or sb. else)。


6-8. But the significant thing is not the behaviour of the players but the attitude of the spectators: and, behind the spectators, of the nations who work themselves into furies over these absurd contests, and seriously believe—at any rate for short periods—that running, jumping and kicking a ball are tests of national virtue.


【译文】但是,令人感到意味深长的不是运动员的表现,而是观众的态度,以及观众身后各个国家的态度。

面对着这些荒唐的比赛,参赛的各个国家会如痴如狂,甚至煞有介事地相信——至少在短期内如此——跑跑、跳跳、踢踢球都是对一个国家品德素质的检验。


【讲解】and, behind the spectators, of the nations…are tests of national virtue是对But the significant thing…the attitude of the spectators的引申。

当句子后有表示说明,解释、引申的内容时用冒号。behind spectators作定语,修饰nations,前置是为了强调。of the nations前省略了the attitude。work和believe是定语从句中的并列谓语。

at any rate for short periods作插入语,句中的两个破折号隔开被强调的插入语。that running, jumping…national virtue作believe的宾语。句首的but作“但是”解,但句中的not…but…则作“不是……而是……”解。

not…but…连接两个并列名词behaviour和attitude,but后面可以说省略了it(the significant thing)is。


【单词和短语】


absurd:荒谬的,荒唐的;滑稽可笑的(completely stupid or unreasonable),名词形式为absurdity,

例如:
The idea that the number 8 brings good luck is absurd.
认为数字8能带来好运的想法愚蠢可笑。