Lesson 15 Secrecy in industry
第十五课工业中的秘密


 by J.D. BERNAL
from The Social Function of Science


15-1. Two factors weigh heavily against the effectiveness of scientific research in industry.


【译文】两种因素严重妨碍工业方面的科研效率。


【单词和短语】


weigh:有分量,具有重要性,有影响(to influence someone’s opinion and the decision that they make),

例如:
Such recommendations will weigh in his favour.
这种推荐对他大有裨益。


The lady’s evidence weighed heavily against him.
女房东的证词对他极为不利。


Selfish interests don’t weigh with him at all.
他根本不把私利置于心上。


15-2. One is the general atmosphere of secrecy in which it is carried out, the other the lack of freedom of the individual research worker.


【译文】一是普遍的保密气氛,科研就是在这种气氛中进行的;二是个体的研究人员缺乏自由。


【讲解】it指scientific research。the other the lack of…中other后省略了is。


【单词和短语】


secrecy:秘密,秘密状态,保密(the process of keeping something secret, or when something is kept a secret),

例如:
do sth. with great secrecy 极秘密地做某事


practise secrecy 保密


The mayor stressed the necessity of absolute secrecy.
市长强调必须绝对保密。


There was no effort at secrecy.
没有一点保密措施。


secrecy的形容词形式为secret。


15-3. In so far as any inquiry is a secret one, it naturally limits all those engaged in carrying it out from effective contact with their fellow scientists either in other countries or in universities, or even, often enough, in other departments of the same firm.


【译文】任何一项研究都秘密进行,这自然会限制所有从事研究的人员与国外的、其他大学的、甚至常常在本公司其他部门的同行科学家进行有效的接触。


【讲解】第一个it指secrecy,第二个it指inquiry。engaged in carrying it out是过去分词短语,作定语,修饰those。either in other countries…the same firm作定语,修饰their fellow scientists。


【单词和短语】


inquiry:探究,研究(the act or process of asking questions in order to get information),

例如:
The True is the goal of all scientific and all philosophical inquiry.
真理是一切科学研究和一切哲学探索的终极目的。


15-4. The degree of secrecy naturally varies considerably.


【译文】保密程度自然差别很大。


【单词和短语】


vary: 变化,有不同,呈差异(if something varies, it changes depending on the situation),

例如:
Her mood varies with the weather.
她的情绪随天气的变化而变化。


The demand varies with the season.
需求随季节变化。


a varying society 变化着的社会


Opinions vary on this point. 对这一点看法各异。


The watch never varies more than one second in a month.
这块表一个月的误差从未超过一秒。


considerably:相当大地,在很大程度上(much or a lot),

例如:
Losing 50 pounds changed her appearance considerably.
她体重减了50磅,容颜大改。


She is considerably older than she looks.
她的实际年龄比她看上去要大得多。


15-5. Some of the bigger firms are engaged in researches which are of such general and fundamental nature that it is a positive advantage to them not to keep them secret.


【译文】某些大公司进行的是一般性和基础性研究,因此公开这些研究对他们有利。


【讲解】which are of such…keep them secret 系定语从句,修饰researches。are of意为“具有”。not to keep them secret乃真正的主语,it是形式主语。这种否定主、宾、状,亦即对非谓语成分的否定,称作“特指否定”。句中的第一个them指the bigger firms,第二个them指researches。


【单词和短语】


positive的反义词为negative。