Lesson 16 The modern city
第十六课现代城市


 by ALEXIS CARREL
from Man, the Unknown


16-1. In the organization of industrial life the influence of the factory upon the physiological and mental state of the workers has been completely neglected.


【译文】在工业生活的组织中,工厂对工人的生理和精神状态的影响完全无人过问。


16-2. Modern industry is based on the conception of the maximum production at lowest cost, in order that an individual or a group of individuals may earn as much money as possible.


【译文】现代工业的基本理念是以最低成本获取最多产品,为的是让某人或某团体尽可能地多赚钱。


【讲解】at lowest cost作production的定语。in order that作连词用引导目的状语从句。


16-3. It has expanded without any idea of the true nature of the human beings who run the machines, and without giving any consideration to the effects produced on the individuals and on their descendants by the artificial mode of existence imposed by the factory.


【译文】现代工业不断扩张,却根本没考虑到操作机器者的真实本性。工厂把一种人造的生存方式强加给工人,却不顾及这种生存方式给工人及其后代的影响。


【讲解】it指modern industry。produced作effects的定语,on与effect搭配在一起用,意为“对……的影响”。

imposed by the factory作the artificial mode of existence的定语。如果把produced摆在descendants和by之间则被容易误认为修饰descendents。produced摆在effects后面使读者一看即知是修饰effects。


【单词和短语】


artificial:人工的,人造的,人为的(not real or not made of natural things but made to be like something that is real or natural),

例如:
artificial leather 人造革
an artificial leg 假腿


请注意,“假牙”只能用false teeth。


impose:把……强加于(to force someone to have the same ideas, beliefs etc. as you),

例如:
He imposed on me his own ideas about the novel.
他把自己对这本小说的看法强加于我。


impose oneself(one’s company)on others
(尽管不受欢迎)还硬缠着别人


She imposed herself as their leader.
她自封为他们的头头。


impose的名词形式为imposition。


16-4. The great cities have been built with no regard for us.


【译文】大城市的建设根本没虑及我们。


【单词和短语】


regard:考虑,注意,关心(attention or consideration that is shown towards someone or something),

例如:
The next object of regard is his conduct.
有待考虑的下一点是他的行为。


You have (shown) no regard for my feelings.
你一点也不顾及我的感情。


pay no regard at all for (to) the human dignities of people
丝毫不顾人们作为人的尊严


Have some regard for cleanliness. 要注意些清洁。


Out of regard for your father, I shall not dismiss you this time.
看在你父亲面上,这回我不开除你。


16-5. The shape and dimensions of the skyscrapers depend entirely on the necessity of obtaining the maximum income per square foot of ground, and of offering to the tenants offices and apartments that please them.


【译文】摩天大楼的形状和大小完全取决于每平方英尺土地取得最大收入的需要,取决于向租户提供使他们满意的办公室和住房的需要。


【讲解】of obtaining the maximum…ground和of offering to… them是两个并列的介词短语,作necessity的定语。offices and apartments that please them作offering的宾语,that please them作offices和apartments的定语从句。them指tenants。