Lesson 14 A noble gangster 贵族歹徒

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听录音,然后回答以下问题:
How did Haywood make in times of peace?霍克伍德在和平时期是怎么赚钱的?
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Listen to the tape then answer the question below.
听录音,然后回答以下问题。
How did Haywood make in times of peace?

There was a tine when the owners of shops and businesses in Chicago that to pay large sums of money to gangsters in return for 'protection.' If the money was not paid promptly, the gangsters would quickly put a man out of business by destroying his shop. Obtaining 'protection money' is not a modern crime. As long ago as the fourteenth century, an Englishman, Sir John Hawkwood, made the remarkable discovery that people would rather pay large sums of money than have their life work destroyed by gangsters.
Six hundred years ago, Sir Johan Hawkwood arrived in Italy with a band of soldiers and settled near Florence. He soon made a name for himself and came to be known to the Italians as Giovanni Acuto. Whenever the Italian city-states were at war with each other, Hawkwood used to hire his soldiers to princes who were willing to pay the high price he demanded. In times of peace, when business was bad, Hawkwood and his men would march into a city-state and, after burning down a few farms, would offer to go away protection money was paid to them. Hawkwood made large sums of money in this way. In spite of this, the Italians regarded him as a sort of hero. When he died at the age of eighty, the Florentines gave him a state funeral and had a pictured with as dedicated to the memory of 'the most valiant soldier and most notable leader, Signor Giovanni Haukodue.'

New words and expressions 生词和短语

gangster
n. 歹徒,强盗

Chicago
n. 芝加哥(美国城市)

protection
n. 保护

promptly
adv. 准时地

destroy
v. 毁掉;消灭

remarkable
adj. 不平常的

hand
n. 帮,团伙

Florence
n. 佛罗伦萨(意大利城市)

city-state
n. (古代)城邦

hire
v. 租出,雇给

prince
n. 君主,诸候

Florentine
n. 佛罗伦萨人

funeral
n. 葬礼

dedicate
v. 奉献,题献给

memory
n. 纪念

valiant
adj. 英勇的

参考译文

曾经有一个时期,芝加哥的店主和商行的老板们不得不拿出大笔的钱给歹徒以换取"保护"。假如交款不及时,歹徒们就会很快捣毁他的商店,让他破产.榨取"保护金"并不是一种现代的罪恶行径.早在14世纪,英国人约翰.霍克伍德就有过非凡的发现:"人们情愿拿出大笔的钱,也不愿毕生的心血毁于歹徒之手.
600年前,约翰.霍克伍德爵士带着一队士兵来到意大利,在佛罗伦萨四周驻扎下来,很快就出了名.意大利人叫他乔凡尼.阿库托.每次意大利各城邦之间打伏,霍克伍德把他的士兵雇佣给愿给他出高价的君主。和平时期,当生意萧条时,霍克伍德便带领士兵进入某个城邦,纵火烧毁一两个农场,然后提出,如向他们缴纳保护金,他们便主动撤离。霍克伍德用这种方法挣了大笔钱.尽管如此,意大利人还是把他视作某种英雄。他80岁那年死去时,佛罗伦萨人为他举行了国葬,并为他画像以纪念这位"骁勇无比的战士、杰出的领袖乔凡尼.阿库托先生."

New words and expression 生词和短语
Gangster n.歹徒, 强盗
-- a band of gangsters 一伙强盗
robber n.抢劫犯, 抢劫者
bandit n.强盗, 土匪
brigand n.强盗, 土匪, 盗贼, 草寇(书面用语)
hooligan n.流氓, 不良分子
hoodlum n.罪犯, 恶汉(口语)
rascal n.调皮, 捣蛋鬼(口语)

hand n.帮, 团伙
-- a band of robbers 一伙强盗
mob n. 一群(表示贬义色彩的团伙、帮派)
-- a mob of hooligans 一伙流氓
gang n.一伙 (-- a gang of thieves)
nest n.窝 (-- a nest of bandits)
pack n.团伙、帮派(-- a pack of hoodlums)

Chicago n.芝加哥(美国城市)

Protection n.保护 (-- protection money 保护费)
protect vt.保护(protect…from…)
-- We must protect our eyes from the sunshine.
Protector(n.保护者) Protective(adj.保护的)
Protege n.被保护者

Promptly adv.准时地
-- I give him a ring and he call me back promptly.
-- He was so sleepy that he went to sleep promptly.
on time 准时/in time 及时
punctual(adj.严守时刻的, 准时的) punctually adv.守时地

destroy v.毁掉;消灭
destroy n.强调毁灭, 消灭, 完全的摧毁
-- The earthquake destroyed the city. / You destroyed his dream.
Damage n.v.强调受损程度不很严重, 可以被修复 -- The big clock was damaged.
Break v.n.强调弄坏, 弄断 -- Two of the strings were broken.
spoil v.强调把事情搅和了 -- spoil the party / spoil the holiday
remarkable adj.不平常的(同意词:unusual, uncommon, extraordinary)
-- a remarkable event , an extraordinary event 不同平常的事件
outstanding(adj.突出的,杰出的,卓越的)-- Our headmaster is an outstanding youth.(n.年轻人, 青少年)
Distinguished(adj. 杰出的, 卓越的, 不同非凡的)
Eminent(adj. 显赫的, 杰出的, 有名的, 优良的)
Distinguished和eminent是同义词(都是用来修饰严厉领域的人)
-- a distinguished physicist(n.物理学家), an eminent surgeon(n.外科医生)
-- an eminent judge(n.法官), a distinguished lawyer(n.律师)
well-known adj.众所周知的( 强调众所周知的)
-- She is well-known in the musical world. / This is well-known fact.
famous adj.闻名的(因卓越的贡献和成绩而流芳百世的)
-- He is a famous movie star. / Luxun is famous for his articles.
Notorious adj. 臭明昭著的, 臭名远扬的(= be famous for bad things)
-- Hitler is notorious.(Hitler n.希特勒)
infamous adj.身名狼藉的(= Notorious)
renowned adj.某人或某事以其独特的品质、个性而闻名
-- Hangzhou is renowned for its beautiful scenery.(n.风景, 景色)

Florence n.佛罗伦萨(意大利城市)
city-state n.(古代)城邦

hire v.租出, 雇给
hire out 出租 -- Does this firm hire out cars?
Rent v.租, 租借, 出租 n.租金
rent out 租给, 雇给(主要强调出租房屋) -- He rent out his house to a tourist.
Let 出租(let his house出租房屋) -- Please let your house to me. 请把房屋租给我吧?
hire from, rent from 租进来 -- He hired a car from us. / I rent a room from Mrs. Johnson.
hire指短期雇佣体力劳动者 -- He hired two helpers
employ指长期雇佣或聘用脑力劳动者
-- We employed her as our advisor.(n.顾问)
-- The factory employed 500 workers.

Prince n.君主, 诸候 n.王子
Florentine n.佛罗伦萨人
Funeral n.葬礼

Dedicate v.奉献, 题献给(dedicate to)
dedicate sth to sb -- He dedicated his first book to his mother
dedicate 献身, 奉献(比devote更为正式而庄重)
dedicate…to sth
-- I devote my time to helping my students.
-- He dedicates his life to his motherland.
-- He dedicated his life to science.

Memory n.纪念
Memory n.记忆, 记忆力, 存储器, 内存
-- You have a good memory.
-- If my memory serves me well, you're Tom. 假如我没有记错的话。
in memory of… = to the memory of… 为了纪念…
-- in memory of him = to the memory of him 为了纪念他
in sb’s honor = in honor of sb 为纪念某人, 为庆祝某人
-- we held a party in his honor. = we held a party in honor of him.

Valiant adj.英勇的(强调非常勇敢)
-- During war, soldiers are valiant.
Brave adj.勇敢的 -- The boy is brave.
Fearless adj.大无畏的, 无所畏惧的 -- We are fearless in time of danger.
courageous adj.有胆量的, 有勇气的

noble adj.高尚的, 贵族的, 高贵的 n.贵族
obtain vt.获得, 得到
crime n.犯罪, 犯罪行为, 罪行
settle vt.安放, 使定居 vi.安家, 定居
demand v.要求, 需要 n.要求, 需求(量), 需要
march vi.进军, 前进
Italian n.意大利人, 意大利语 adj.意大利的, 意大利语的, 意大利文化的
Offer vt., vi.提供, 提出
Notable adj. 闻名的, 显著的,值得注重的
Signor n.阁下, 君

Text 课文
How did Haywood make in times of peace?
There was a tine when the owners of shops and businesses in Chicago that to pay large sums of money to gangsters in return for 'protection.'
pay large sums of money to sb 向某人付大笔大笔的费用
in return for… 目的是为了换取…, 作为对…的回报
-- He gave me some books in return for my help.
when 引导状语从句修饰time
-- There was a time when mini skirt was in fashion.(Mini n.迷你型, 袖珍型)

If the money was not paid promptly, the gangsters would quickly put a man out of business by destroying his shop.
Promptly = immediately
put a man out of business 使某人失业
put sb/sth out of... 使某人失去…
-- You are putting me out of patience. 你使我失去耐心了。
-- You have already put everything out of order.
-- Put it out of your mind. 忘记这件事情吧。
by destroying his shop 通过…手段
-- You are putting me out of patience by disturbing me.

Obtaining 'protection money' is not a modern crime.
Obtaining = getting

As long ago as the fourteenth century, an Englishman, Sir John Hawkwood, made the remarkable discovery that people would rather pay large sums of money than have their life work destroyed by gangsters.
as long ago as 追溯回到(= dating back to = date from)
-- I knew Jane as long ago as the year 1980.
make the remarkable discovery 做出不同平常的发现
would rather do... than do... 宁愿…而不…
-- He would rather die than surrender.(vi.投降, 自首)
-- I would rather play tennis than swim.
would prefer to do ... than do...
would prefer doing ... to doing...
-- He would prefer to die than surrender.
-- He would prefer dying to surrendering.
would rather(sooner) that 宾语从句(过去式)-- 虚拟语气
-- I would rather that you were not here. 我宁愿你不在这。(暗含:实际你在这)
-- I would rather that I didn't see you.
-- He would rather that he didn't hear the news.
life work 毕生的事业 / have sth done

Six hundred years ago, Sir Johan Hawkwood arrived in Italy with a band of soldiers and settled near Florence.
settled near Florence 定居在 Florence 四周

He soon made a name for himself and came to be known to the Italians as Giovanni Acuto.
made a name for himself = become famous
-- They soon made quite a name for themselves as pop singers.
come to = get to 渐渐的
come to be known 渐渐被人所熟知
-- I come to be known to my students.
-- I got to know him.

Whenever the Italian city-states were at war with each other, Hawkwood used to hire his soldiers to princes who were willing to pay the high price he demanded.
Whenever 无论什么时候
at war 交战 / at war with… 于…交战
hire 表示出租
who指代prince
he demanded = Hawkwood demanded

In times of peace, when business was bad, Hawkwood and his men would march into a city-state and, after burning down a few farms, would offer to go away if protection money was paid to them.
in time of peace 在和平期间
march into 大踏步行军
burn down 烧毁 / burn up烧光 / burn out 烧空
-- The house was burned out only walls left. 房子被了只剩下墙壁。
would offer to go away = would promise to go away

Hawkwood made large sums of money in this way. In spite of this, the Italians regarded him as a sort of hero.
in spite of this 尽管如此
People in different countries have different opinions.
The Italians regarded him as a sort of hero.

When he died at the age of eighty, the Florentines gave him a state funeral and had a pictured which was dedicated to the memory of 'the most valiant soldier and most notable leader, Signor Giovanni Haukodue.'
give sb a state funeral 给某人举行国葬
have sth done
Signor n.先生(意大利语)
which 指代picture
be dedicated to the memory of sb
the most valiant 比较级的最高级形式

Special difficulties 难点
would rather / would sooner
would rather do… than do…
would rather that… (that宾语从句中要出现动词的过去时)
1...go
2...left(rather省略了that)
3...did not speak
4...not speak(would rather do…的否定形式结构:would rather not do… 宁愿不做...)
5...settled
6...didn't tell

Multiple choice questions 多项选择
1... B
premise n.房产, 房屋(及其附属建筑, 地基等)
unharmed adj.未受伤害的, 太太平平的
destruction n.破坏, 毁灭
criminal n.罪犯, 犯罪者 adj.犯罪的, 犯法的, 罪恶的
2... B 他获取自己的名字是依据自己的所作所为
practice n.实行, 实践 sharp adj.苛刻的 recognition n.承认, 认可
3... A in that = because "因为",表示一种原因
boldness n.大胆, 冒失, 勇敢 bravery n.勇敢, 大胆, 无畏 can not help 不得不, 不由自主
4... A 段时间:for a long time(现在完成式)
5... C prefer doing… to doing…
6... B hire sth from sb 从某人租得某物
7... A if not (假如不) = unless Provided… 条件是...
8... C 介词on和名词death相搭配(表示:去世的状态)
介词on和动名词搭配(表示:一...就...) -- On seeing him, I ran away.
9... B passed(动词的过去分词)
depart vi.离去, 离开, 出发 -- When does the next train depart? 下一次列车什么时候开?
10... D prepared adj.心甘情愿的, 预备好的(= willing) -- be willing to do = be prepared to do
agreeable adj.使人愉快的, 舒服的, 适合的, 宜人的
desirable adj.值得要的, 合意的, 令人想要的(= attractive adj.吸引人的)


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