PROGRAMME 30

PART I The Dialogue

为了观看一场重要的足球比赛,许多入在排队买票。Geoff Howard和他们谈了话。 随后你还会听到一对夫妻的对话。妻子在等侯丈夫,丈夫来了以后,妻子说:
EFA-30-1.jpgWIFE: Ah,there you are!
HUSBAND:Well... where have you been?
WIFE: Where have I..? What do you mean? I've been standing here.. Waiting for you!
HUSBAND: But I've been waiting for you!
WIFE: Where?
HUSBAND: Inside the restaurant over there.
WIFE: You mean you've been sitting down...drinking tea probably.. and I've been standing here... waiting!
HUSBAND: Yes. I thought you inside, so...
WIFE: I said outside the restaurant!
HUSBAND: Well, maybe I made a mistake...Sorry I kept you waiting.

PART II - Vocabulary

a football ground ['futbɔ:lgraund] 足球场
a mistake [mə'steik] 错误
a ticket office ['tikət ɔfəs] 售票处
a testaurant ['restərɔnt/'restərɔŋ] 餐馆
an umbrella [ʌm'brelə] 雨伞
drink [driŋk] 喝
know about sth ['nəu əbaut...] 知道某件事
talk to sb ['tɔ:k tə/tu:...] 和某人说话
wet [wet] 湿的
a long time [a'1ɔŋ'taim] 很长时间
Have you been waiting long? [(h)əv ju:bi:n 'weitiŋ'lɔ ŋ] 你等了很久了吗?
Sorry I kept you waiting ['sɔri ai'kept ju:'weitiŋ] 对不起,让你等了
Sorry I've kept you waiting ['sɔri: aiv 'kept ju:‘weitŋ] 对不起,让你等了

PART III - The Lesson

CONNECTING THE PAST WITH THE PRESENT连接过去与现在

我们常常需要把过去和现在联系起来,比如要表示过去开始现在仍然继续的事情。在这种情况下,经常用两种完成时态(与since或for连用)。
一种是现在完成时,其结构是:
HAVE/HAS+PAST PARTICIPLE
I have+known him since 1982.
He has+owned a car for a long time.
一种是现在完成进行时,其结构是:
HAVE/HAS+BEEN+VERB+-ING
I have+been+waiting for ages.
He has+been+talking to me since 9 0'clock.

1. THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE
现在完成时
遇到表示状态的动词,如understand,know,like,be,要说明这一状态在过去开始,现在仍然继续,就用现在完成时。这一类动词不用于现在完成进行时。
I've known him for ages.
He's been here for a long time.
I've liked her ever since I met her.

2.THE PRESENT PERFECT
CONTINUOUS现在完成进行时
遇到表示动作的动词,要说明这一动作在过去开始,现在仍然继续,就用现在完成进行时。
You've been listening since
Programme 1.
(You started listening to these programmes months ago and you're still listening.)
I've been living here since 1982.
(l came here in 1982 and I'm still living here.)
He's been waiting for two hours.
(He arrived at the ticket office2 hours ago and he's still waiting there.)

3. SOME QUESTIONS怎样提问
关于过去开始现在仍然继续的动作,通常用下面两种方法提问:
a)  Have you been waiting long?
这样的问题可以用Yes或No来回答,如有必要还可以提供更详细的情况。
Have you been waiting long?
-  No, not long.
Has it been raining here?
- Yes.
Has he been listening to this programme since it started?
-  Yes, he has.
Have you been learning English for a long time?
-  Oh, yes.  Since I was 12, actually.

b)  How long have you been waiting?
回答这样的问题,往往以For或Since开始。
FOR:  如果表示动作从过去到现在已经延续了多长时间,就用for
例如:For 6 months
SINCE:如果表示动作从过去某个时间开始延续到现在,就用since
例如:Since June
EFA-30-2.jpg

请看下面几个例子:
How long have you been waiting?
- For half an hour.
How long has it been raining here?
- Since yesterday morning.
How long has he been listening to this programme?
- Since it started
How long have you been learning English?
-  Oh, for ages

PRONUNCIATION CORNER

在日常会话里,遇到完成时态,我们往往用简略的形式。例如:
I have   = I've [aiv]
He has  =  He's [hi:z]
It has   = It's [its]
How long have    = How long've ['hau '1ɔŋəv]
Where have   =  Where've ['wɛərəv]

在前面的词汇表里,talk to这个短语是这样注音的:['tɔ:k tə/tu:...]这是因为to的读音取决于后面的词。
a) [tə]在辅音前面,例如:
to John  [tə'ʤɔn]
b) [tu:]用在元音前面,例如:
to Anne[tu:'æn]
For的读音也有类似的情况。
a) [fə]用在辅音前面,例如:
for John[fə'ʤɔn]
b) [fər]用在元音前面,例如:
for Anne[fər'æn]